Skip to main content

Advertisement

Detection of probable dementia cases in undiagnosed patients using structured and unstructured electronic health records

Article metrics

Abstract

Background

Dementia is underdiagnosed in both the general population and among Veterans. This underdiagnosis decreases quality of life, reduces opportunities for interventions, and increases health-care costs. New approaches are therefore necessary to facilitate the timely detection of dementia. This study seeks to identify cases of undiagnosed dementia by developing and validating a weakly supervised machine-learning approach that incorporates the analysis of both structured and unstructured electronic health record (EHR) data.

Methods

A topic modeling approach that included latent Dirichlet allocation, stable topic extraction, and random sampling was applied to VHA EHRs. Topic features from unstructured data and features from structured data were compared between Veterans with (n = 1861) and without (n = 9305) ICD-9 dementia codes. A logistic regression model was used to develop dementia prediction scores, and manual reviews were conducted to validate the machine-learning results.

Results

A total of 853 features were identified (290 topics, 174 non-dementia ICD codes, 159 CPT codes, 59 medications, and 171 note types) for the development of logistic regression prediction scores. These scores were validated in a subset of Veterans without ICD-9 dementia codes (n = 120) by experts in dementia who performed manual record reviews and achieved a high level of inter-rater agreement. The manual reviews were used to develop a receiver of characteristic (ROC) curve with different thresholds for case detection, including a threshold of 0.061, which produced an optimal sensitivity (0.825) and specificity (0.832).

Conclusions

Dementia is underdiagnosed, and thus, ICD codes alone cannot serve as a gold standard for diagnosis. However, this study suggests that imperfect data (e.g., ICD codes in combination with other EHR features) can serve as a silver standard to develop a risk model, apply that model to patients without dementia codes, and then select a case-detection threshold. The study is one of the first to utilize both structured and unstructured EHRs to develop risk scores for the diagnosis of dementia.

Background

Dementia significantly decreases quality of life and increases inpatient service utilization [1, 2], outpatient mental health visits, and health-care costs, both in civilian contexts [3, 4] and within VHA [1]. Many of these consequences can be at least moderately reduced when dementia is identified earlier in the course of illness. For instance, patients with dementia can benefit from liaisons to mental-health care providers, as well as social and/or legal services related to elder and dementia care. Providing access to these resources can delay nursing home placement and thereby increase the ability for patients to age in place, which can improve quality of life and generate substantial health-care savings. Although the US Preventive Services Task Force does not recommend routine screening for dementia because of the high rate of false positives in such screenings [1, 5], the identification of and appropriate workup for dementia is critical for chronic disease management and health-system capacity planning.

The estimated prevalence of dementia in Veterans over the age of 65 is 7% (ranging from 5.8 to 9.4%) [1], rising to 24% in Veterans over the age of 85 and then to 30% in Veterans over the age of 95 [6]. The underdiagnosis of dementia, however, is common [7]. A recent study by Amjad et al. [8], for instance, concluded that only about half of individuals who meet criteria for dementia actually receive such a diagnosis from a clinical provider, and Butler et al. [9] found that among Veterans who receive a diagnosis of dementia, at least one-third receive a nonspecific “dementia, not otherwise specified” diagnosis when a more specific diagnosis would be more appropriate. These trends are not surprising when we consider the complexity of making a dementia diagnosis and the fact that modern medicine relies on self-management and self-reliance, traits that are severely diminished by cognitive impairment or dementia. The lack of consistency in identifying, working up, and diagnosing dementia reduces the utility of using diagnostic codes and other administrative data, increases the health-care costs described above, and points to a missed opportunity to improve quality of life and delay institutionalization by providing potentially beneficial dementia-related services, outpatient medical care, and medications [10, 11]. New approaches to facilitate the timely detection of dementia in primary-care settings are thus needed to address the quality of care and to provide adequate health-care resources to individuals with dementia.

Electronic health records (EHRs) offer a rich resource and new opportunity to improve research and clinical care, particularly in the context of undiagnosed dementia. Structured EHR data, such as diagnosis and procedural codes, have been used extensively in population-based research [12], the identification of specific patient characteristics, the performance of surveillance, and the establishment of risk scores [13]. Multiple research consortia, including the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics Network (eMERGE) [14], have used EHRs to construct and identify phenotypes. One of the eMERGE studies created a model that used ICD-9 diagnostic codes and the occurrence of “events” (i.e., neuroimaging, orders for B12 or TSH) and pharmacy fills for dementia medications to better identify the dementia phenotype in EHRs [15]. The eMERGE approach, which identified the best criterion for identifying dementia as “all cause dementia” (i.e., > 5 ICD-9 codes for dementia) and/or > 1 pharmacy fill for a dementia medication, had a sensitivity of 55% and a positive predictive value of 73%. A subsequent family practice–based health study of administrative data [16] identified the highest performing algorithm as one that included a hospitalization code, three physician claim codes that occurred at least 30 days apart, or the prescription of an Alzheimer’s disease (AD)–related medication.

However, algorithms that focus on structured EHR data and rely on diagnostic codes are unable to reliably identify conditions that are not diagnosed formally. Indeed, the fact that many cases of dementia and other cognitive impairment are not documented in administrative or diagnostic codes indicates that such codes alone are insufficient in identifying cases. To validate diagnosis would at a minimum require the manual review of potential cases for signs of cognitive impairment by a dementia specialist, but reading every patient note in search of memory or daily functioning difficulties is clearly not practical.

To address these obstacles, we sought to develop an efficient phenotyping method that would incorporate the analysis of both structured EHR data (e.g., diagnosis and procedural notes) and unstructured EHR data (e.g., words in clinical notes). A key challenge to this strategy, especially for undiagnosed dementia, is the highly varied documentation of the clinical presentation of dementia in clinical notes and the lack of expert annotated data. Indeed, other investigators have had promising results when attempting to detect dementia using both structured and unstructured data [17, 18], but these past efforts, while sophisticated and informative, analyzed subjects who received specific cognitive disorder diagnoses (and excluded undiagnosed subjects) per Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) criteria. Furthermore, these analyses of unstructured data were only conducted in clinical research records—not in EHRs. In contrast, EHR-based detection, which is more translatable to clinical practice at VHA, must focus on learning to detect undiagnosed dementia from a large amount of imperfect data and such detection is potentially more challenging.

Thus, the creation of a reliable dementia phenotype classifier through machine learning requires a large sample with annotation. In VHA, we have access to a tremendous amount of data that we believe can allow us to develop a silver standard for the diagnosis of dementia. This data contains a large number of Veterans who received dementia diagnoses within VHA and who mostly likely do have dementia (i.e., they are true positives); a large number of Veterans who have not received dementia diagnoses and who most likely do not have dementia (i.e., they are true negatives); and a large number of Veterans who have not received dementia diagnoses but do have dementia (i.e., they are false negatives). In fact, we suspect that among Veterans with dementia about 30 to 50% are in the latter category. Leveraging this large body of data, we sought to design a weakly supervised learning approach and to validate the machine-learning results through manual chart reviews of a subset of subjects by dementia specialists. We hypothesized that documented signs of dementia would be found in the imperfect EHR data of VHA patients who lacked a dementia diagnosis.

Methods

Study population

For this study, we created cohorts of Veterans with and without a diagnosis of dementia who were previously evaluated at VA Puget Sound. The dementia cases were Veterans who

  1. (1)

    received at least one diagnosis of dementia from a specialty clinic as defined by one of the following ICD-9 codes: 331.0, 290.0, 290.10, 290.11, 290.12, 290.13, 290.20, 290.21, 290.3, 290.40, 294.10, and 294.11;

  2. (2)

    received their first dementia diagnosis at an age of 65 or older and between FY2009 and FY2014; and

  3. (3)

    had at least 2 days per year with documented clinical visits and associated notes in Computerized Patient Record System (CPRS) for each of the 3 years preceding the first dementia diagnosis.

We intentionally focused on cases with ICD codes established in specialty clinics because past studies have shown that a dementia diagnosis made by specialty clinicians are highly specific [9]. The controls were Veterans who

  1. (1)

    had at least one outpatient visit or inpatient hospitalization at VA at an age of 65 or older;

  2. (2)

    received no dementia-related diagnoses (see the ICD-9 codes above) over a period of 3 years; and

  3. (3)

    were not prescribed anti-dementia medications (i.e., donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine, or memantine) over the three-year analysis period.

The controls were matched to dementia cases (5:1) on gender, age (within 5 years), and Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) [19] as a way to reduce the contributions of these variables to the differences that might be observed in structured and unstructured data between cases and controls. We did not expect that the CCI would control for all possible confounding comorbidity-related variables; instead, we sought to reduce the contributions of overall medical comorbidity severity.

Data source

For both cases and controls, we obtained structured data (i.e., diagnosis [ICD codes], procedures [CPT codes], medications, and clinical document types) and unstructured data (i.e., clinical document text) from the clinical data warehouse (CDW) within the Veterans Affairs Informatics and Computing Infrastructure (VINCI), which was established to improve researchers’ access to VHA data and to facilitate the analyses of these data while also ensuring Veterans’ privacy and data security. This resource comprises clinical and administrative domains, including notes, on 25 million patients.

All clinical data were collected for a 3-year period that either immediately preceded but did not include the first ICD-9 diagnosis of dementia (for cases) or a random visit date that was selected as an index date (for controls). This 3-year period was established to capture data from potentially symptomatic cases who were receiving medical care at VHA prior to their diagnosis.

Medical comorbidities were gathered from administrative data, particularly from ICD codes assigned at admission and outpatient visits. The comorbidities were then assessed using the CCI [19], and each subject was assigned a comorbidity category (i.e., 0, 1–2, 3–4, or > 4) based on the initial description of Deyo et al.; weights were applied as initially described by Deyo et al. [19]. Age was calculated at the first ICD-9 dementia diagnosis for cases or at the pre-selected index date (i.e., the latest visit) for controls.

Structured data aggregation

We aggregated the structured data over the 3-year analysis period, treating each type of structured data (i.e., an ICD or CPT code, medication, or note type) as a candidate feature. The prevalence of the candidate features in the case and control samples was then calculated and used for feature selection.

Topic modeling and stable topic extraction

We used a topic modeling approach to identify findings related to dementia in the free-text clinical notes, as we previously described in Shao et al. [20]. Topic modeling is an unsupervised machine-learning method for automatically discovering common themes, called “topics,” that are shared by documents in a large text corpus. These topics are technically represented as a series of words that frequently co-occur in documents. The number of topics is usually a few orders less in magnitude than the number of documents; this makes understanding the content of a large text corpus easier because one can analyze the smaller number of topics rather than reading the larger number of documents. Our topic modeling method also calculates the proportion of topics in each document, and these calculations make it feasible to automatically retrieve documents that are relevant to certain themes. In this study, for example, we use the proportion of dementia-related topics observed in excess in cases versus controls to identify dementia-related signs or symptoms.

To ensure that the topics identified by our model were stable, we used a two-step topic modeling approach [20]. First, to discover raw topics, we ran a latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) algorithm on the clinical notes. This algorithm was implemented in the Machine Learning for Language Toolkit (MALLET) Java package. Because LDA uses a randomize seed, the resulting topics differ slightly in each run. Thus, we ran LDA three times to obtain three sets of raw topics. In preparation for the next step, we then applied a stable topic extraction method [20] to the 3 sets of raw topics to extract the topics that are stable. Given that we collected about 2.5 million notes from cases and controls during the 3-year study period and that LDA is a time-consuming algorithm, we randomly sampled 1 note per day for each subject; this sampling strategy reduced the runtime of the LDA algorithm while preserving the main topics. This yielded a sufficiently large and representative sample corpus of 871,000 notes. We then ran LDA on the sampled notes and set 1000 as the total number of topics. We ran LDA three times to obtain 3 topic models, and then we applied the 3 models to all of the 2.5 million notes using the LDA inference algorithm to infer the topic proportions in each note.

Second, to extract stable topics from the set of raw topics, we applied a stable topic extraction method to the 3 sets of raw topics [20]. The application of this step yielded 877 stable topics. We then determined whether these stable topics were present in each of the notes by calculating whether at least 2 of the 3 topic proportions (i.e., one proportion value from each run) were ≥ 2%; the value 2% was an empirical choice. We considered that a topic was present in a subject if it was present in at least one of the notes of that subject. These topics were directly used to form features from unstructured data.

Feature selection

We extracted thousands of structured data features (i.e., ICD and CPT codes, medications, and document types) and hundreds of topic features. By comparing the features present in the cohort of Veterans with an ICD-9 diagnosis of dementia (n = 1861) to the features present in the cohort of Veterans without an ICD-9 diagnosis of dementia (n = 9305), we were able to select features that were highly associated with the diagnosis of dementia. Specifically, we calculated the correlation and odds ratio (OR) of each feature associated with case-control status, and we selected topics that were present in > 1% of the case or control records that were either correlated to case-control status (i.e., a correlation > 0.05 or < − 0.05) or to an OR of > 2.0 or < 0.5 (before adjustment).

Dementia risk score and the identification of undiagnosed dementia

We created a logistic regression model using the selected features as predictors. We categorized all cases and controls by their corresponding logistic regression prediction scores, which we considered their “risk” scores. Given the high rate of undiagnosed dementia in VHA, risk scores for controls (i.e., subjects without a dementia diagnosis) were especially relevant. For example, controls with regression prediction scores that are highly associated with dementia may benefit from additional workup.

When we fit the logistic regression model, we used a value of 1 for the outcome of the cases and 0 for the outcome of the controls such that higher prediction scores indicate a higher likelihood of having dementia. The controls with high risk scores were thus identified as undiagnosed dementia by the model. To define “high” risk scores, we introduced a threshold θ and defined high scores to be those > θ. In other words, controls with scores > θ were identified as having undiagnosed dementia by the model. Using a variable threshold θ provided us with the flexibility to choose identifications with different performance characteristics (i.e., some for higher sensitivity and some for higher specificity).

Validation

To validate the risk scores and choose a threshold θ, a reference standard is required. We first confirmed that there were sufficient data within the free-text notes for trained clinicians to independently assign dementia diagnoses and to achieve an adequate level of inter-rater agreement between each other. To that end,10 cases and 10 controls were randomly selected for manual record review by two dementia specialists (DWT and KKC) who were blinded to subjects’ case-control status. For these 20 subjects, the specialists reviewed a total of 2092 free-text clinical notes that were dated within the 3-year window prior to either the first dementia diagnosis date (of the cases) or the index date (of the controls); the specialists determined the presence of dementia using DSM-V guidelines [21]. The clinicians demonstrated high inter-rater agreement, and the agreement between the ICD-9 dementia diagnoses and the clinician-assigned diagnoses was also high (Kappa = 0.810, 95% confidence interval 0.571, 1.0), which is consistent with a previous study [9]. The clinicians also found that all 10 of the cases had early signs of dementia and that a few of the controls actually had undiagnosed dementia.

To evaluate the predicted risk scores for controls (i.e., the subjects without ICD codes of dementia), we established 10 risk bins such that bin 1 was designated for risk scores between 0 and 0.1, bin 2 was designated for risk scores between 0.1 and 0.2, and so on until bin 10, which was designated for scores between 0.9 and 1. We then randomly selected 10 controls from each of these 10 risk bins, as well as an additional 20 subjects from the low risk-score bin (i.e., 30 controls were selected from bin 1), as this bin had several times more subjects without a dementia diagnosis than the other bins. This stratified sampling was used so that controls with a full range of risk scores could be reviewed by our dementia specialists in a small validation sample. However, because the subjects for the validation sample were selected from bins that varied in size, the calculation of sensitivity (SEN) and specificity (SPE) is less straightforward than if each of the risk bins contained an equal number of subjects.

Following the diagnostic guidelines described above, the two dementia specialists (DWT and KKC) reviewed a total of 22,980 clinic notes from these 120 controls to determine whether each control demonstrated signs and symptoms in the three-year analysis period that were consistent with “Dementia” or “Non-Dementia.” To speed up this manual review process, the specialists generated a list of dementia keywords (e.g., memory and cognitive) that were then highlighted in the notes. Some of the subjects lacked sufficient information for the specialists to determine their dementia status; these subjects were categorized as “Unclear” and were subsequently treated as “Unclear = Dementia” or “Unclear = Non-Dementia” in different analyses (e.g., see Table 3).

A linear model was fit to the rates of undiagnosed dementia as determined by manual chart review for each risk bin. This approach was used because (1) the selection of thresholds requires more granular estimates of undiagnosed dementia rates while the cutoffs used for the 10 preset bins are coarse, and (2) the variance of estimation with a fitted line is greatly reduced compared to using individual bins with very small sample sizes (i.e., n = 10 or n = 30 per bin). Given that linear regression models require each rate to correspond to a single x-value rather than to an interval, we chose the midpoints of each bin interval as the x-values. For example, for the 0-to-0.1 bin, we set the x-value at 0.05.

Line fitting was performed under the hypothesis that the intercept was zero. That is, we hypothesized that when the prediction score decreased to zero, the incidence rate of dementia would decrease to zero as well. To test the hypothesis that the intercept was zero, we first fit a line with a non-zero intercept: y = b0 + b1x. The regression results showed that the p-value for b0 was > 0.05, which meant that we could not reject the hypothesis that b0 = 0. Therefore, we fit a second line with a zero intercept: y = bx. This fitted line was used to estimate the rates of undiagnosed dementia in arbitrary bins.

To create finer-grained bins with even sizes, we sorted all of the controls by their risk scores and divided them into many bins such that each bin contained ~ 100 controls; a total of 9305 controls were divided into 93 bins. Assuming that 0 = x0 < x1 < x2 <  < x92 < x93 = 1 were the risk score values that divided the controls into the 93 bins, the number of undiagnosed dementias in the i th bin xi − 1~xi was estimated to be

$$ {u}_i=\mathrm{round}\left(b\bullet {\overline{x}}_i\bullet {N}_i\right) $$

where b is the slope from the fitted line, y = bx, \( {\overline{x}}_i=\left({x}_{i-1}+{x}_i\right)/2 \) is the midpoint of the bin, xi − 1~xi, Ni is the actual number of controls in the bin (Ni ≈ 100), and the function round(∙) rounds any value to the nearest integer.

The SEN and SPE could only be estimated if the threshold θ was set to be one of the dividing values xi. Thus, for threshold θ = xi,

$$ \mathrm{SEN}=\frac{\sum_{k=i+1}^{93}{u}_k}{\sum_{k=1}^{93}{u}_k},\kern2.75em \mathrm{SPE}=\frac{\sum_{k=1}^i\left({N}_k-{u}_k\right)}{\sum_{k=1}^{93}\left({N}_k-{u}_k\right)}=\frac{\sum_{k=1}^i{N}_k-{\sum}_{k=1}^i{u}_k}{9305-{\sum}_{k=1}^{93}{u}_k} $$

By varying the threshold θ from x0 to x93, we were able to plot the receiver of characteristic (ROC) curve and calculate the area under the ROC curve (AUC).

Results

Table 1 describes the demographic characteristics of the cases and controls that were utilized for the analyses in this study. Given that we matched the cases and controls on age and gender, there should be no differences between the groups on these characteristics.

Table 1 Demographics of the cases and controls

A total of 853 features were selected, including 290 topics, 174 non-dementia ICD codes, 159 CPT codes, 59 medications, and 171 note types. For example, a topic containing the terms dementia, memory, cognitive, Alzheimer, MMSE, and recall was selected, and that topic occurred in the notes of 74.94% of cases prior to ICD-9 dementia diagnosis but only in the notes of 13.51% of controls prior to the index time point (OR = 19.15).

The most significant topic features are shown in Table 2. In considering these results, note that (a) the terms in a topic could occur in any order or combination and (b) the presence of a topic in a document does not require the presence of all the terms in a topic to be present. Topics that were observed more frequently in cases than in controls were considered dementia related.

Table 2 The most significant topic features (p < 0.01) between cases and controls

Comparing the distribution of cases and controls in our logistic regression model to the distribution of subjects as established by our original inclusion and exclusion criteria (i.e., ICD-9 diagnosis of dementia) shows that the majority of controls had low risk scores, and the majority of cases had high risk scores (see Fig. 1).

Fig. 1
figure1

Prediction scores and originally assigned case/control status. The distribution of cases (red bars) and controls (blue bars) established by our original inclusion and exclusion criteria compared to the results of our logistic regression model (prediction score indicates the likelihood of having dementia)

In Table 3, we list the results of our chart review on 120 subjects from the control group (as described in the Validation subsection above). We also depict our calculation of the rate of undiagnosed dementia for each risk-score bin.

Table 3 Results of the manual chart review

We fit a linear regression model on the rate of undiagnosed dementia vs. risk score based on the calculations in Table 3, as depicted in the two rightmost columns. The risk score for each bin was taken as the midpoint. The regression results are shown in Table 4. The p-values there indicated that the intercept values were not significantly different from zero (at the 0.05 level), and we therefore fit a second linear regression model with intercept = 0. The data points and the fitted lines from this second regression model are shown in Fig. 2.

Table 4 Linear regression results
Fig. 2
figure2

Lines fit to the rates of undiagnosed dementias estimated in the 10 risk bins. The x values for the bins were taken as the midpoints of the bin intervals. The left figure illustrates the results when the “Unclear” diagnoses were treated as dementia (i.e., “Unclear = Dementia”), whereas the right figure illustrates the results when the “Unclear” diagnoses were treated as non-dementia (i.e., “Unclear = Non-Dementia”)

Figure 3 shows the ROC curves of the model, which draws from 93 bins and uses the fitted linear regression model with zero intercept for estimating the number of dementias within each bin, in identifying undiagnosed dementia when the “Unclear” diagnoses were treated as dementia (in blue) and non-dementia (in red). The AUCs were 0.912 and 0.908, respectively. In the figure we have highlighted six dots (i.e., 3 blues and 3 reds) that correspond to 3 thresholds; these dots represent 3 typical situations of the performance: threshold = 0.037 had higher sensitivity, threshold = 0.102 had higher specificity, and threshold = 0.061 had balanced sensitivity and specificity. Table 5 lists the specific sensitivity and specificity values for the 3 thresholds.

Fig. 3
figure3

ROC curves of the prediction with AUC values. The blue and red colors correspond to “Unclear = Dementia” and “Unclear = Non-Dementia,” respectively. AUC: area under ROC; ROC: receiver of characteristic curve

Table 5 Performance for the identification of undiagnosed dementias

Discussion

Our study is the first step toward establishing a model to detect probable dementia cases among patients who have not received a dementia-related diagnosis or ICD code. Because of the high underdiagnosis rate of dementia, we cannot rely on ICD codes as a gold standard. However, our findings suggest that we can use imperfect data (e.g., the ICD codes in combination with other EHR features) as a silver standard to develop a risk model, apply that model to patients without a dementia diagnostic code, and then select a threshold for case detection. This finding is particularly useful given the flaws inherent to other methods of identifying undiagnosed dementia. Broad-based dementia screening programs, for example, have not been widely adopted in clinical settings, in part because when implemented, such screening programs have been associated with high false-positive rates, patient hesitation to undergo diagnostic confirmation, and a high monetary cost per identified case [22, 23]. Older adults are particularly wary of the implications and potential psychological harms of dementia screening, such as the placement of more restrictions on their daily lives if dementia is diagnosed [24,25,26]. Given these factors, as well as the lack of an objective diagnostic test for dementia or the existence of specific medications to cure dementia, cognitive screening programs have been a low priority for both researchers and clinicians.

An alternative to systematic screening is a case-finding approach in which clinicians initiate a diagnostic assessment of dementia when patients (and/or their caregivers) describe or present with symptoms that are suggestive of dementia. However, these kinds of case-finding approaches are also flawed, as individuals with signs of dementia are often missed in primary care practice, both in civilian contexts [27,28,29] and within VHA [30]. In fact, some studies indicate that only ~ 25–40% of patients with dementia are recognized in primary care settings, and most surprising of all, this trend can sometimes include cases who are late in the disease course [29, 31]. Multiple factors contribute to the tendency of providers to overlook dementia cases, including time and resource constraints, a lack of objective measurements, the insidious onset of dementia symptoms, and the erroneous belief that there are no approved treatments [32,33,34].

A recent study found that using EHRs in combination with brief telephone-based cognitive screening assessments and follow-up calls resulted in up to seven times more diagnoses of dementia than in age-matched comparison Veterans [35]. Here, we follow the trajectory of those findings by proposing an automated EHR approach to improve case-finding in primary care. Our findings show that there are terms in notes and coded EHR data that are more likely to be associated with dementia cases than controls, and our examination of these terms suggests a high rate of undiagnosed dementia in VHA. We also found that these dementia-related word topics, non-dementia ICD-9 codes, procedure codes, specific medications, and visit types were documented in EHRs many months—and, in some instances, years—prior to subjects’ initial ICD-9 dementia diagnoses. Although the ICD-9 diagnoses of dementia that were assigned in EHRs were generally accurate according to our limited clinical review, the undiagnosed cases present significant clinical implications for resource planning in large health-care organizations like VHA.

Therefore, rather than relying on primary care providers or caregivers to initiate diagnostic assessments, automated case-finding algorithms could be implemented in clinics with a high number of geriatric patients (i.e., patients who have a high risk of developing dementia). We do not propose these algorithms as a method of generating a clinical diagnosis of dementia or as a substitute for an expert clinical assessment but, rather, as a possible method to flag patients who may benefit from a targeted clinical assessment. This alternative approach could result in earlier identification of patients with dementia, leading to more timely interventions (e.g., the prescription of anti-dementia medications and/or the involvement of social services) to potentially decrease morbidity. Indeed, since dementia patients have higher levels of medical comorbidity, they will need additional supports and resources to improve their and their families’ ability to manage these complicated medical comorbidities. Appropriate interventions will also improve their quality of life.

Although Wray et al. [35], and others, have previously used structured EHR data to assist in the diagnosis of dementia, and Bullard et al. [17, 18] have used structured and unstructured data from research records in a smaller sample, ours is the first study of EHRs to explore the utility of weakly supervised learning and natural language processing (NLP) in patients without the diagnosis of dementia. Our study is also unique in that we focused on EHR data present up to 3 years prior to the first ICD-9 diagnosis of dementia. As we demonstrate here, the use of our model to detect probable dementia cases who did not receive ICD codes can result in important increases in the early detection of dementia. Because of the high rate that dementia goes undiagnosed by clinicians, we cannot use ICD codes as a gold standard for diagnosis and optimize a predictive model based on ICD codes. However, our findings show that we can use existing EHRs to develop a risk model that can then be applied to individuals without dementia diagnostic codes. By applying the method as we have outlined it in this manuscript, it may be possible to focus automated screening, for example, on 2% of older patients (i.e., patients who are age > 65) who do not have a dementia diagnosis and then to offer additional workup.

Future studies that investigate the use of automated methods to detect undiagnosed dementia should consider applying weakly supervised machine learning to broader populations, expanding the validation stage, and gathering caregivers and primary-care providers’ insight on how to handle the risks of dementia that are suggested by algorithms. There are several limitations to this study in that we applied our algorithm within the context of geriatric specialty clinics and not within the primary care VHA population at large. Furthermore, given that the majority of geriatric Veterans are male, we cannot generalize our findings to female Veterans or to women in general; it would be interesting, for example, to observe whether the sex-related topic features in Table 2 (e.g., “wife” and “son”) varied in a more balanced sample and to determine how that may or may not affect the model’s ability to identify undiagnosed probable dementia. It was also impossible in the validation stage for our dementia specialists to definitively ascertain from clinical records alone whether every subject was “Dementia” or “Non-Dementia,” and thus, future studies may use in-person or telephone assessments to reduce that uncertainty. Likewise, because we did not directly contact the subjects who we determined were at high risk for developing dementia, we do not know how many of these patients would be amenable to additional workup and or cognitive assessments. That said, if patients are unwilling to pursue additional screening, our algorithm could still provide primary-care providers with knowledge concerning the potential risk of cognitive impairment, and it would thus encourage providers to explore alternative medical management strategies for patients who are hesitant to undergo additional assessments (e.g., routine appointments at the facility to fill medisets).

Conclusions

In summary, our findings confirm our hypothesis that there are documented signs of dementia that can be found in all aspects of imperfect EHR data. We also demonstrate the feasibility of using our automated methods to identify topics and other EHR data that can be used to assign a dementia risk score in subjects without a previous ICD-9 diagnosis of dementia (AUC > 0.9). Our study thus suggests that there may be many Veterans with undiagnosed dementia and that by using our model, we can successfully identify these patients. These informatics advances therefore provide a striking opportunity to ultimately improve the quality of care in our nation’s aging Veterans.

Availability of data and materials

A minimal data set is available to authorized users of VINCI.

Abbreviations

AD:

Alzheimer’s disease

AUC:

area under the receiver of characteristic curve

CCI:

Charlson comorbidity index

CDW:

clinical data warehouse

CPRS:

Computerized Patient Record System

CPT:

current procedural terminology

DSM:

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

EHR:

electronic health record

eMERGE:

Electronic Medical Records and Genomics Network

ICD:

International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems

LDA:

latent Dirichlet allocation

MALLET:

Machine Learning for Language Toolkit

MMSE:

Mini-Mental State Examination

NLP:

natural language processing

ROC:

receiver of characteristic

SEN:

sensitivity

SPE:

specificity

TSH:

thyroid-stimuting hormone

VA:

Veterans Affairs

VHA:

Veterans Health Administration

VINCI:

Veterans Affairs Informatics and Computing Infrastructure

References

  1. 1.

    Krishnan LL, Petersen NJ, Snow AL, Cully JA, Schulz PE, Graham DP, Morgan RO, Braun U, Moffett ML, Yu HJ, et al. Prevalence of dementia among veterans affairs medical care system users. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2005;20(4):245–53.

  2. 2.

    Lyketsos CG, Sheppard JM, Rabins PV. Dementia in elderly persons in a general hospital. Am J Psychiatry. 2000;157(5):704–7.

  3. 3.

    Martin BC, Ricci JF, Kotzan JA, Lang K, Menzin J. The net cost of Alzheimer disease and related dementia: a population-based study of Georgia Medicaid recipients. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2000;14(3):151–9.

  4. 4.

    Taylor DH Jr, Sloan FA. How much do persons with Alzheimer's disease cost Medicare? J Am Geriatr Soc. 2000;48(6):639–46.

  5. 5.

    Lin J, O'Connor E, Rossom R, Perdue L, Burda B, Thompson M, Eckstrom E. Screening for cognitive impairment in older adults: an evidence update for the U.S. Preventive Services task force. In: Evidence syntheses, vol. 107. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2013. p. 14–05198-EF-05191.

  6. 6.

    Yaffe K, Vittinghoff E, Lindquist K, Barnes D, Covinsky KE, Neylan T, Kluse M, Marmar C. Posttraumatic stress disorder and risk of dementia among US veterans. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010;67(6):608–13.

  7. 7.

    Connolly A, Gaehl E, Martin H, Morris J, Purandare N. Underdiagnosis of dementia in primary care: variations in the observed prevalence and comparisons to the expected prevalence. Aging Ment Health. 2011;15(8):978–84.

  8. 8.

    Amjad H, Roth DL, Sheehan OC, Lyketsos CG, Wolff JL, Samus QM. Underdiagnosis of dementia: an observational study of patterns in diagnosis and awareness in US older adults. J Gen Intern Med. 2018;33:1131–8.

  9. 9.

    Butler D, Kowall NW, Lawler E, Michael Gaziano J, Driver JA. Underuse of diagnostic codes for specific dementias in the veterans affairs New England healthcare system. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2012;60(5):910–5.

  10. 10.

    Ashford JW, Borson S, O'Hara R, Dash P, Frank L, Robert P, Shankle WR, Tierney MC, Brodaty H, Schmitt FA, et al. Should older adults be screened for dementia? Alzheimers Dement. 2006;2(2):76–85.

  11. 11.

    Geldmacher DS, Provenzano G, McRae T, Mastey V, Ieni JR. Donepezil is associated with delayed nursing home placement in patients with Alzheimer's disease. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2003;51(7):937–44.

  12. 12.

    Floyd JS, Heckbert SR, Weiss NS, Carrell DS, Psaty BM. Use of administrative data to estimate the incidence of statin-related rhabdomyolysis. JAMA. 2012;307(15):1580–2.

  13. 13.

    Nadkarni PM, Ohno-Machado L, Chapman WW. Natural language processing: an introduction. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2011;18(5):544–51.

  14. 14.

    Gottesman O, Kuivaniemi H, Tromp G, Faucett WA, Li R, Manolio TA, Sanderson SC, Kannry J, Zinberg R, Basford MA, et al. The electronic medical records and genomics (eMERGE) network: past, present, and future. Genet Med. 2013;15(10):761–71.

  15. 15.

    McCarty CA, Chisholm RL, Chute CG, Kullo IJ, Jarvik GP, Larson EB, Li R, Masys DR, Ritchie MD, Roden DM, et al. The eMERGE network: a consortium of biorepositories linked to electronic medical records data for conducting genomic studies. BMC Med Genet. 2011;4:13.

  16. 16.

    Jaakkimainen RL, Bronskill SE, Tierney MC, Herrmann N, Green D, Young J, Ivers N, Butt D, Widdifield J, Tu K. Identification of physician-diagnosed Alzheimer's disease and related dementias in population-based administrative data: a validation study using family Physicians' electronic medical records. J Alzheimers Dis. 2016;54(1):337–49.

  17. 17.

    Bullard J, Alm C, Liu X, Proano R, Yu Q: Towards early dementia detection: fusing linguistic and non-linguistic clinical data. In: Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Computational Linguistics and Clinical Psychology: 2016; San Diego, CA: Association for Computational Linguistics; 2016: 12–22.

  18. 18.

    Bullard J, Murde R, Yu Q, Alm C: Inference from structured and unstructured electronic medical data for early dementia detection. In: 14th INFORMS computing society conference: 2015; Richmond, VA; 2015.

  19. 19.

    Deyo RA, Cherkin DC, Ciol MA. Adapting a clinical comorbidity index for use with ICD-9-CM administrative databases. J Clin Epidemiol. 1992;45(6):613–9.

  20. 20.

    Shao Y, Mohanty AF, Ahmed A, Weir CR, Bray BE, Shah RU, Redd D, Zeng-Treitler Q. Identification and use of frailty indicators from text to examine associations with clinical outcomes among patients with heart failure. AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2016;2016:1110–8.

  21. 21.

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5). 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association; 2013.

  22. 22.

    US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for dementia: recommendations and rationale. Am J Nurs. 2003;103(9):87, 89, 91, 93, 95.

  23. 23.

    Boustani M, Callahan CM, Unverzagt FW, Austrom MG, Perkins AJ, Fultz BA, Hui SL, Hendrie HC. Implementing a screening and diagnosis program for dementia in primary care. J Gen Intern Med. 2005;20(7):572–7.

  24. 24.

    Boustani M, Perkins AJ, Fox C, Unverzagt F, Austrom MG, Fultz B, Hui S, Callahan CM, Hendrie HC. Who refuses the diagnostic assessment for dementia in primary care? Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2006;21(6):556–63.

  25. 25.

    Boustani M, Watson L, Fultz B, Perkins AJ, Druckenbrod R. Acceptance of dementia screening in continuous care retirement communities: a mailed survey. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2003;18(9):780–6.

  26. 26.

    Hopkins JS, Watson LC, Boustani M, Perkins T. C F: What do healthy older adults think about dementia screening? [abstract]. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2006;54:S189.

  27. 27.

    O'Connor DW, Pollitt PA, Hyde JB, Brook CP, Reiss BB, Roth M. Do general practitioners miss dementia in elderly patients? BMJ. 1988;297(6656):1107–10.

  28. 28.

    Sternberg SA, Wolfson C, Baumgarten M. Undetected dementia in community-dwelling older people: the Canadian study of health and aging. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2000;48(11):1430–4.

  29. 29.

    Valcour VG, Masaki KH, Curb JD, Blanchette PL. The detection of dementia in the primary care setting. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160(19):2964–8.

  30. 30.

    Kansagara D, Freeman M. A systematic evidence review of the signs and symptoms of dementia and brief cognitive tests available in VA. Washington (DC): Department of Veterans Affairs; 2010.

  31. 31.

    Boustani M, Peterson B, Hanson L, Harris R, Lohr KN, U.S. Preventive Services Task force. Screening for dementia in primary care: a summary of the evidence for the U.S Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2003;138(11):927–37.

  32. 32.

    Boise L, Camicioli R, Morgan DL, Rose JH, Congleton L. Diagnosing dementia: perspectives of primary care physicians. Gerontologist. 1999;39(4):457–64.

  33. 33.

    Bradford A, Kunik ME, Schulz P, Williams SP, Singh H. Missed and delayed diagnosis of dementia in primary care: prevalence and contributing factors. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2009;23(4):306–14.

  34. 34.

    Koch T, Iliffe S, Project E-E. Rapid appraisal of barriers to the diagnosis and management of patients with dementia in primary care: a systematic review. BMC Fam Pract. 2010;11:52.

  35. 35.

    Wray LO, Wade M, Beehler GP, Hershey LA, Vair CL. A program to improve detection of undiagnosed dementia in primary care and its association with healthcare utilization. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2014;22(11):1282–91.

Download references

Acknowledgements

Not applicable.

Funding

This material is based on work supported by a VA VISN-20 Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center (GRECC) Clinical Demonstration Project and by the National Institute on Aging (R56 AG059739). The funding bodies did not play a role in the design of the study; the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; or the writing of the manuscript.

Author information

YS, QTZ, and DWT participated in the conception of the study; ASD and DWT obtained funding and regulatory approvals for the study; YS and QTZ collected the machine-learning data; KKC and DWT validated the data via manual record reviews; YS, QTZ, ASD, SMT, and DWT participated in the interpretation of the findings and the writing and revising of the manuscript; and YS, QTZ, ASD, SMT, and DWT reviewed and approved the final manuscript.

Correspondence to Debby W. Tsuang.

Ethics declarations

Ethics approval and consent to participate

We received approval from the VA Puget Sound institutional review board to conduct this research; this approval included a waiver of HIPAA authorization and consent. No specific human subjects were identified or contacted during this work.

Consent for publication

Not applicable

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Shao, Y., Zeng, Q.T., Chen, K.K. et al. Detection of probable dementia cases in undiagnosed patients using structured and unstructured electronic health records. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 19, 128 (2019) doi:10.1186/s12911-019-0846-4

Download citation

Keywords

  • Dementia
  • Diagnosis
  • Machine learning
  • Medical records
  • Veterans