- Research article
- Open Access
- Open Peer Review
BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making volume 18, Article number: 135 (2018)
Data was collected from a large Taiwanese medical center by means of survey methodology. A total of 312 responses comprised of various groups of healthcare professionals was collected and analyzed via structural equation modeling.
It has been duly acknowledged that the adoption of electronic medical records (EMR), a collection of software functions commonly utilized in the delivery of directives for patient care, in the maintenance of patients’ medical records, and the distribution of laboratory testing or radiologic examinations results , can improve healthcare quality and decrease overall cost . Via EMR, healthcare professionals can serve to inquire after patient information immediately without the limitations of time and space . However, with the advent of a more accessible and comprehensive EMR system, a massive amount of medical records may become easily obtainable to both unauthorized and authorized users who are both inside and outside the healthcare facilities . EMR are therefore potentially susceptible to security breaches which may lead to real patients’ privacy concerns . Most reported privacy violations in healthcare facilities stem in fact from staff misuse or abuse of their privileged access status to patient records [5, 6].
There is a widely accepted knowledge as to the importance of employees’ compliance with organizational rules, procedures, and policies, all of which can be used to regulate employees’ accurate attitudes or behaviors regarding how organizational resources should be utilized [5, 7, 8]. Despite such evidence, employees often demonstrate not to abide by such prescriptive rules or policies. In reality, non-compliance to such stated policies may cause organizations significant reputational damage, remediation costs, or even subsequent penalties . For many healthcare facilities, regulations have been purposefully mandated in order to secure patient information due to the increased digitization of patient records . Healthcare facilities must therefore invest in how to effectively motivate employees to comply with stated policy and to secure EMR.
Theoretical foundation and hypotheses
The theoretical foundation of our study is adapted from self-determination theory  and habit-related perspective . Self-determination theory, one of the often-adopted theoretical frameworks within motivation research , differentiates between various types of motivation according to the different reasons or goals leading to a given action . Among those motivations, self-determinant theory differentiates between two main types of motivation: (1) intrinsic motivation, and (2) extrinsic motivation . Intrinsic motivation refers to undertaking a behavior because it is inherently enjoyable or interesting to do, while extrinsic motivation refers to doing something because it can result in a separable outcome . Such intrinsic and extrinsic motivation when taken together affect an individual to undertake a particular behavior .
Habits are commonly considered to be “learned sequences of acts that become automatic responses to specific situations, which may be functional in obtaining certain goals or end states  (p.14).” Many behaviors that are of interest to individuals, especially when they are repeatedly and satisfactorily executed, may eventually become personal habits without extra cognitive processes having to take place . Although some researchers hold that habits can be formed quickly, most studies argue that habit continuation requires a certain amount of repetition or practice to take place [22, 23]. As for the formation of habits, literature  suggests that a stable context which requires an individual’s minimal attention in responding to certain situations, is essential. Once a habit is shaped, an individual can then perform a behavior automatically .
The relationship between satisfaction and habit
The relationship between self-efficacy and habit
The relationship between perceived usefulness and habit
The relationship between facilitating conditions and habit
In Taiwan, hospitals are usually divided into three major categories based on given characteristics of size: medical centers, regional hospitals, and district hospitals. Totally, the number of medical centers, regional hospitals, and district hospitals in Taiwan are about 19, 80, and 308, respectively . Most of the three types of hospitals have utilized some form of EMR due to efforts to improve EMR adoption promoted by the Ministry of Health and Welfare in Taiwan. Medical centers, however, implement more comprehensive EMR systematization and have wider application of EMR than regional and district hospitals due to appreciable organizational resources. We therefore surveyed hospital staff from a medical center of 1300-beds serving nearly 5000 outpatients daily located in southern Taiwan. The subject hospital has about 3511 employees including 3020 healthcare professionals and 491 administrative staff. The subject hospital was chosen because of two major considerations: (1) The subject hospital is equipped with well-established EMRs systems aimed at providing patients with high quality healthcare services; and, (2) The subject hospital was regarded as being rather proactive in their use of EMR in terms of overall internal EMR utilization and the amount of EMR exchanged with external healthcare facilities . Both reasons made the chosen hospital suitable for use in the study of EMR privacy protecting issues.
Our study used a cross-sectional design, and survey methodology was adopted to collect data. Since most violations of patient privacy in healthcare facilities stem from staff misuse or abuse of the privileged right to access patient records [5, 6], hospital employees (i.e., healthcare professionals and administrative staff) who are granted access EMR must still be regarded as potential threats capable of jeopardizing EMR privacy. Among 3511 employees involved as part of this study, about 2800 healthcare professionals and 100 administrative staff were actually authorized to access EMR. Considering the heavy workload of hospital staff, a census of all eligible employees is unfeasible, we therefore adopted convenience sampling to collect relevant data. We appointed a coordinator for the departments whose staff members maintain access to EMR systems in order to assist questionnaire administration. Recruitment of hospital employees was voluntarily and guaranteed anonymity to participate in the survey. Ethical approval from the subject hospital was sought and then acquired prior to the eventual administration of the survey.
Partial least squares (PLS), a distribution-free analytic method , was used for purposes of data analysis because the collected data did not follow a normal distribution (p < .001) to some extent subsequent to a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. We utilized R software version 3.5.1 , with both plspm version 0.4.9 and semPLS version 1.0–10 package [54, 55], to assess the measurement model (i.e., dealing with the relationships between the observed variables and the latent variables) and the structural model (i.e., dealing with the relationships between the exogenous and endogenous variables) of PLS, respectively. In order to obtain the scores of the latent variables for subsequent use of measurement and in the structural model, their associated observed variables are weighted and summed by PLS . Further, the RMediation version 1.1.4  package was used to assess the mediation effect of habit.
Measurement model assessment
In PLS, the measurement model assesses the reliability and the validity of measures taken [48, 49]. Literature suggests reliability can be evaluated via composite reliability or Cronbach’s α . In our study, both the values of composite reliability and Cronbach’s α of all constructs (see Table 2) were larger than the suggested value of 0.7 , thus demonstrating sufficient reliability being present.
As for validity, convergent validity and discriminant validity are commonly assessed in terms of PLS . Table 3 shows that all items in our study loaded highly on the postulated factors and had factor loadings greater than 0.7 . Regarding the validity of construct level, the constructs used in this study had a value of average variance extracted higher than 0.5 , indicating sufficient convergent validity (see Table 2). Further, the squared root of average variance extracted for each construct was larger than the correlation coefficients of the specific construct with any other constructs in the proposed model, also demonstrating adequate discriminant validity .
Several correlations between constructs are higher than 0.7 (see Table 2), but they are still lower than 0.85, which may indicate the presence of a collinearity issue . To avoid the possible influence of collinearity, we further checked for the issue and the results demonstrated that the tolerance value of each construct investigated ranges from 0.15–0.64, showing that collinearity should not become an issue in this study .
Structural model assessment
In addition to testing the proposed hypotheses, we further examined the PLS structural model with three widely adopted criteria, namely the predictive relevance Q2, the q2 and the f2 effect size . The Q2 value of habit was 0.64, showing the structural model had predictive relevance for this construct . Further, the relative impact of predictive relevance (q2) of satisfaction, self-efficacy, perceived usefulness, and facilitating conditions was − 0.015, 0.042, 0.038, and 0.128, respectively. These q2 sizes were deemed small according the criteria suggested by the literature . Finally, the exogenous constructs of satisfaction, self-efficacy, perceived usefulness, and facilitating conditions for explaining the endogenous construct habit have f2 effect sizes of 0.005, 0.070, 0.238, and 0.066, respectively. According to their effect sizes, these facilitating conditions had a medium effect size (f2 = 0.238), as well as possessing small predictive relevance (q2 = 0.128) . Both self-efficacy and perceived usefulness were seen to have a small effect size and a small amount of predictive relevance. Satisfaction had the smallest effect size and also the smallest amount of predictive relevance in our study.
Assessment of the mediation effect of habit
Based on the reported findings, we would propose several points that might be worthy of consideration for further theory development. First, the literature  has considered continuance behavior (or, repeat behavior) to be guided by an individual’s cognitive process. Hence, much effort is devoted to explaining continuance intention directly from these perspectives, such as perceived usefulness, satisfaction, etc. However, as EMR becomes more prevalent among healthcare facilities, and thus healthcare professionals can access EMR anywhere and at any time without much involved cognitive process, habit may play a significantly larger role in protecting patient privacy. We therefore hope that our study will contribute towards future development of habit formation to ensure patient privacy protection in EMR usage.
Fourth, the inclusion of facilitating conditions and self-efficacy in our model has provided additional perspectives. Facilitating conditions and self-efficacy are usually considered before a behavior is conducted in terms of other behavioral theory . The inclusion of these two variables in our model has allowed a broader picture of hospital staff’s perceptions in the post-behavioral phase, and it has created a richer understanding of their continuance intentions.
Several limitations should be noted in our study. First, the data was collected from only one Taiwanese medical center without comprising samples from other hospitals. Hence, the generalizability of our finding may in fact be limited. Further, in order to avoid any interruption of patient-care activities, the survey used a self-reporting method to investigate behavioral intention among staff rather than through direct observation or through the recording of participants’ actual compliance behavioral patterns. Future research can therefore examine the issue in order to better realize the associations among these investigated constructs examined as part of this study.
By integrating both motivation and habitual perspectives, our study presented and then empirically verified a model used to examine continuous compliance with EMR privacy policies by hospital employees. Motivations including self-efficacy, perceived usefulness, and facilitating conditions are significant predictors of compliance habits; and, habits, in their turn, may significantly predict hospital staff’s continuance compliance intention. We also found that habit is a partial mediator between motivations and continuance compliance intention.
Electronic medical records
Partial least squares
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This work has been supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology (Grant no. MOST-104-2410-H-214-007), Taiwan, R.O.C.
Availability of data and materials
The anonymous datasets from the present study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request. No identifying/confidential patient data were collected.
Ethics approval and consent to participate
The study was conducted with an approval by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of Chi-Mei Medical Center, Taiwan. The IRB waived the mandate for obtaining a written informed consent from subjects. Participants were provided with an information sheet which detailed relevant information about the study, potential benefits and risks of participation in this study, the opportunity and means to ask questions, and also the options regarding voluntary agreement to participate in this study. Verbal consent was then requested prior to commencement of the survey. This study was provided as an anonymous survey of adults over the age of 20 for which no personal, identifiable information was collected.
Consent for publication
The manuscript does not contain any individual’s data in any form.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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