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Table 2 Comparison of calibration group and validation group based on intensive and minimal follow-up groups, respectively, from trial by Pietra et al.[52]

From: A simulation model of colorectal cancer surveillance and recurrence

Value Calibration group (Intensive follow-up) Validation group (Minimal follow-up)
Group characteristics
Number of subjects 104 103
Male 56% 51%
Mean age at diagnosis 62.2 +/− 11 64.4 +/− 12
Astler-Coller stage B/C 59.6%/40.4% 58.3%/41.7%
Primary colon/rectal tumors 70.2%/29.8% 64.1%/35.9%
Preoperative complications 14% 11%
Recurrence rate during study period 39.4% 40.4%a
Distribution of metastatic disease if present: Liver/Lung/Other (includes multiple organs)b 26.7%/0.0%/73.3% 14.2%/4.8%/81.0%
Surveillance testing schedule
Clinical interview/exam Every 3 months for 2 years; every 6 months thereafter Every 6 months for 1 year; every 12 months thereafter
CEA Every 3 months for 2 years; every 6 months thereafter Every 6 months for 1 year; every 12 months thereafter
Hepatic ultrasound Every 3 months for 2 years; every 6 months thereafter Every 6 months for 1 year; every 12 months thereafter
CT of abdomen/pelvis Every 12 months None
Chest x-ray Every 12 months Every 12 months
Colonoscopy Every 12 months Every 12 months
Outcome targets
Disease-free survival at 5 years (DFS5) 68% 53%
Overall survival at one year after initial surgery (OS1) 97% 98%
OS2 90% 89%
OS3 84% 74%
OS4 76% 65%
OS5 73% 58%
Proportion undergoing curative salvage re-operation for recurrence 20% 6%
  1. CEA = serum carcinoembryonic antigen assay; OSx = overall survival at x years.
  2. aIncludes a single metachronous (new primary) CRC
  3. bMetastatic site was only reported by Pietra et al. for patients whose recurrences were metastatic only, and did not feature simultaneous involvement around the original tumor site.