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Table 2 Characteristics of eligible studies

From: Factors affecting the mature use of electronic medical records by primary care physicians: a systematic review

Author (year), country Design Sample size of PCPs Data collection
Audet et al. (2014), US [39] Cross-sectional study 1012 Self-administered, structured questionnaire
Clarke et al. (2016), US [38] Mixed-model approach combining qualitative and quantitative research methods 16 Video analyses
Qualitative participant debriefing sessions (narrative feedback)
Quantitative performance measures (percent task success, time-on-task, mouse clicks, and mouse movements)
System usability scale (a survey instrument that allows physicians to rank the system’s usability)
DesRoches et al. (2013), US [37] Cross-sectional study 1164 Self-administered, structured questionnaire
Goetz et al. (2012), US [7] Qualitative methods 14 Telephone interviews
On-site visits involving interviews and observation
National Survey of Physician Organizations
Jones et al. (2018), Canada [44] Qualitative methods, observational study 6 Semistructured interviews using the EMR Progress Assessment survey tool
Observations of data quality in EMRs and of physician’s workflow
Lynch et al. (2014), US [40] Quantitative methods, descriptive study 101,584 From 10 databases: Administrative data from Regional Extension Center program’s customer relationship management database merged with 9 other secondary data source databases
Paré et al. (2015), Canada [41] Cross-sectional study 331 Self-administered structured questionnaire
Randhawa et al. (2018), Canada [10] Mixed-model approach combining qualitative and quantitative research methods 18 Survey, questionnaire
Follow-up interviews
Raymond et al. (2015), Canada [42] Cross-sectional study 331 Self-administered structured questionnaire
Raymond et al. (2019), Canada [43] Cross-sectional study 331 Self-administered structured questionnaire
Schoen et al. (2012), 10 countries (Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Switzerland, UK, US) [3] Cross-sectional study Sample sizes of PCPs ranged from 500 to more than 2000 for the 10 countries Phone interviews
Mail surveys using a questionnaire
Shachak et al. (2009), Israel [45] Qualitative methods 25 Semistructured interviews
Field observations
Trudel et al. (2017), Canada [18] Qualitative methods 15 Semistructured interviews
Field notes from observations
Consultation of relevant documents (e.g., user manuals)
Watt (2014), Canada [16] Mixed-model approach combining qualitative and quantitative research methods 29 Questionnaire, survey
Notes from action plans developed with coach and physician
Clinical Value Model (CVM) assessment tool (86 questions, subjective assessment tool administered by the coach)
CVM feedback survey (web-based survey for physicians to complete)
Notes from practice optimization plan