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Table 11 Examples of errors and predictions of each neural model (B: BERT; F: Flair; SL: SequenceLabeler)

From: A clinical trials corpus annotated with UMLS entities to enhance the access to evidence-based medicine

Type Example Model
Ambiguity el nivel de fósforo se redujo (‘phosphorus level decreased’)
Prediction: O B-PROC I-PROC I-PROC O O ✗: B, F, SL
Reference: O O O B-CHEM O O  
  grupos de 20 miembros (‘20-member groups’)  
Prediction: O O O B-ANAT ✗: SL
Reference: O O O O : B, F
FNs Lurbinectedin ( PM01183 ) (‘Lurbinectedin (PM01183)’)  
Prediction: O O O O ✗: SL
Reference: B-CHEM O B-CHEM O : B, F
  episodios de NF (‘episodes of FN’ [‘febrile neutropenia’])  
Prediction: O O O ✗: B, SL
Reference: O O B-DISO : F
FPs gen AVXS-101 (‘AVXS-101 gene’)  
Prediction: O B-CHEM ✗: B, SL
Reference: O O : F
  estudio BREATH-19 (‘BREATH-19 study’)  
Prediction: O B-DISO ✗: SL
Reference: O O : B, F
Scope eventos adversos graves (‘severe adverse events’)  
Prediction: B-DISO I-DISO I-DISO ✗: B, SL
Reference: B-DISO I-DISO O : F
  cirugía ginecológica abierta (‘open gynecologic surgery’)  
Prediction: B-PROC I-PROC I-PROC ✗: B, F, SL
Reference: B-PROC I-PROC O  
  estudios comparativos de la eficacia (‘compared efficacy studies’)
Prediction: B-PROC O O O O ✗: SL
Reference: B-PROC I-PROC I-PROC I-PROC I-PROC : B, F