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Table 2 HITAM-related factors influencing willingness to use TM (Univariate analysis)

From: Assessment of willingness to Tele-monitoring interventions in patients with type 2 diabetes and/or hypertension in the public primary healthcare setting

 Total, n(%)Willinga, n(%)Odds ratio and confidence IntervalP Value
Behavioural Beliefs (Health Status)
 No. of Years since diagnosis of diabetes mellitusa
  5 or less210 (49.5)123 (58.6)1.672 (1.139–2.457)< 0.01
  More than 5 years214 (50.5%98 (45.8)Reference 
 No. of Years since diagnosis of hypertensiona
  5 or less298 (40.7)167 (56.0)1.298 (1.020–1.745)0.10
  More than 5 years434 (59.3)215 (49.5)Reference 
 Is patient on insulin injectiona
  On insulin49 (11.3)27 (55.1)1.165 (0.641–2.117)0.65
  Not on insulin384 (88.7)197 (51.3)Reference 
 T2DM and Hypertension medicationa
  Takes regularly849 (94.6)449 (52.9)1.220 (0.682–2.184)0.55
  Does not take regularly48 (5.4)23 (47.9)Reference 
 Visits to Polyclinic per yeara
  4 or less visits587 (65.5)296 (62.7)1.301 (0.986–1.717)0.07
  More than 4 visits309 (34.5)176 (57.0)Reference 
Behavioural beliefs (health beliefs and concerns)
 In general, would you say your health is (i.e. perception of health):
  Good504 (56.1)293 (58.1)1.676 (1.285–2.185)< 0.01
  Poor395 (43.9)179 (45.3)Reference 
 How much time did the patient set aside for the appointment todaya
   < 3 h705 (78.5)385 (54.6)1.427 (1.036–1.964)0.03
   > 3 Hours193 (21.5)88 (45.6)Reference 
 Confidence managing T2DM/Hypertension
  Confident630 (70.1)350 (74.2)1.506 (1.130–2.007)0.06
  Not confident269 (29.9)122 (45.4)Reference 
 Perception of health compared to 1 year agoa
  Worse health197 (21.9)87 (44.2)Reference 
  Same or better701 (78.1)384 (54.7)1.532 (1.114–2.105)0.01
Normative beliefs (hit reliability)
 TM would be satisfactory compared to seeing the doctor in persona
  Agree316 (35.1)225 (71.2)3.535 (2.5–4.449)< 0.01
  Disagree582 (64.9)247 (42.4)Reference 
 Convenience of visit to polyclinic
  Convenient825 (91.8)435 (52.7)1.115 (0.693–1.795)0.72
  Not convenient74 (8.2)37 (50.0)Reference 
 Transport Mode†
  Public or personal transport626 (72.2)334 (53.4)1.116 (0.829–1.502)0.50
  Walk241 (27.8)122 (50.6)Reference 
 Is patient accompanied
  Accompanied169 (18.8)102 (60.4)1.481 (1.054–2.082)0.03
  Not accompanied730 (81.2)370 (50.7)Reference 
 Perceptions on monetary savings from telemedicinea
  Saves money470 (52.4)306 (65.1)2.963 (2.257–3.388)< 0.01
  Does not save money427 (47.6)165 (38.6)Reference 
Normative beliefs (Subjective Norms)
 Patient would be more convinced after seeing benefits from reports
  More willing532 (59.2)309 (58.1)1.734 (1.326–2.268)< 0.01
  Not more willing367 (40.8)163 (44.4)Reference 
Efficacy beliefs (hit self efficacy)
 Patients feel they would not be able to explain their problems adequately via tele-monitoring.a
  Disagree465 (51.8)203 (43.7)Reference 
  Agree433 (48.2)268 (61.9)2.096 (1.605–2.740)< 0.01
 Tele-monitoring can violate patients’ privacy
  Agree204 (22.7)90 (44.1)Reference 
  Disagree695 (77.3)382 (55.0)1.546 (1.129–2.119)< 0.01
 Handphonea
  Owns857 (95.4)461 (53.8)3.175 (1.571–6.418)< 0.01
  Does not own41 (4.6)11 (26.8)Reference 
 Smartphonea
  Owns778 (86.6)433 (55.7)2.607 (1.735–3.917)< 0.01
  Does not own120 (13.4)39 (32.5)Reference 
 Access to computera
  Has access to computer666 (74.2)384 (57.7)2.228 (1.640–3.027)< 0.01
  No access to computer232 (25.8)88 (37.9)Reference 
 Access to internet
  Yes792 (88.4)435 (54.9)2.206 (1.442–3.375)< 0.01
  No232 (11.6)37 (15.9)Reference 
 Computer skillsa
  Yes635 (70.6)380 (59.8)2.77 (2.054–3.375)< 0.01
  No262 (29.4)93 (35.5)Reference 
 Use Smartphone appsa
  Uses apps609 (78)366 (60.1)2.36 (1.669–3.339)< 0.01
  Does not use apps172 (22)67 (39.0)Reference 
 Tablets
  Owns407 (45.5)252 (61.9)2.023 (1.547–2.645)< 0.01
  Does not own487 (54.5)217 (44.6)Reference 
 Patient feels communication devices too challenging
  Challenging397 (44.2)160 (40.3)Reference 
  Not Challenging502 (55.8)312 (62.2)2.227 (1.859–3.185)< 0.01
  1. an for these factors are < 899 instead of the total n = 889 participants as the question was not applicable to the participant or they declined to answer