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Table 1 Thirty-three patient preference exploration and elicitation methods (adapted from Soekhai et al. [12])

From: Appraising patient preference methods for decision-making in the medical product lifecycle: an empirical comparison



Preference exploration methods

Individual methods

In-depth individual interviews

(Semi) structured - individual interviews

Complaints procedures

Concept mappinga

Group methods

Delphi method

Dyadic interview

Citizens’ juries

Focus groups

Nominal group technique

Public meetings

Preference elicitation methods

Discrete choice based methods

Adaptive conjoint analysis

Discrete choice experiment / Best- worst scaling (type 3)

Indifference methods

Contingent valuation

Person-trade off

(Probabilistic) threshold technique

Standard gamble

Starting known efficacy

Test trade-off

Time trade-off

Rating methods

Allocation of points

Analytic hierarchy process

Constant sum scaling

Measure of value

Outcome prioritization tool

Repertory grid method

Swing weighting

Visual analogue scale

Ranking methods

Best-worst scaling (type 1)b

Best- worst scaling (type 2)b

Control preference scale


Qualitative discriminant process

Self-explicated conjoint

  1. aConcept mapping can be utilised as a group method, but for the purpose of this method comparison it will be taxonomised as an individual method because the success of its data collection is not dependent on the present of multiple participants, unlike the other group techniques
  2. bSoekhai et al. [12] condensed Best-worst scaling types 1 and 2 into one method for the systematic review, but these were separated for this investigation to determine whether they performed differently