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Table 1 Thirty-three patient preference exploration and elicitation methods (adapted from Soekhai et al. [12])

From: Appraising patient preference methods for decision-making in the medical product lifecycle: an empirical comparison

 Methods
Preference exploration methodsIndividual methodsIn-depth individual interviews
(Semi) structured - individual interviews
Complaints procedures
Concept mappinga
Group methodsDelphi method
Dyadic interview
Citizens’ juries
Focus groups
Nominal group technique
Public meetings
Preference elicitation methodsDiscrete choice based methodsAdaptive conjoint analysis
Discrete choice experiment / Best- worst scaling (type 3)
Indifference methodsContingent valuation
Person-trade off
(Probabilistic) threshold technique
Standard gamble
Starting known efficacy
Test trade-off
Time trade-off
Rating methodsAllocation of points
Analytic hierarchy process
Constant sum scaling
Measure of value
Outcome prioritization tool
Repertory grid method
Swing weighting
Visual analogue scale
Ranking methodsBest-worst scaling (type 1)b
Best- worst scaling (type 2)b
Control preference scale
Q-methodology
Qualitative discriminant process
Self-explicated conjoint
  1. aConcept mapping can be utilised as a group method, but for the purpose of this method comparison it will be taxonomised as an individual method because the success of its data collection is not dependent on the present of multiple participants, unlike the other group techniques
  2. bSoekhai et al. [12] condensed Best-worst scaling types 1 and 2 into one method for the systematic review, but these were separated for this investigation to determine whether they performed differently