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Table 1 Criteria used to determine the insight value

From: Health timeline: an insight-based study of a timeline visualization of clinical data

Value Criteria Example
1 Describe the data. No patterns or periodicity spotted. Values described as “low” or “high”. No awareness of the times an event appears in the dataset. “this is a patient on injectable antipsychotic medications”
2 Describe periodicity or frequency of an event. Found patterns, irregularities and amount of repetitions. No conjectures or assumptions. “the patient has quite a number of GP visits in 2011, 2012 and 2013”
3 Requires a conjecture or assumption. Try to explain why an event or value is repeating, missing, following a pattern. Speculation on the treatment, status, follow-up, treatment or behavior of the patient. Prediction on the future status of the patient based on a single event. No correlation with other events. Single conjecture explaining one phenomenon “patient also has an investigation suggesting that he has some metabolic disease”
4 Conjecture or assumption about two or more events. Explanation of probable cause and effect. Ties two events or phenomena together with a probable reason or explanation. Not all the elements in the dataset are explained some relationships remain unknown to this insight. “in summary I think it is a patient with psychotic illness”
5 Hypothesis that ties together the discovered elements and events into one possible explanation. Explains relationship between events. Explains probable underlying reasons of the events. Ties together all the events mentioned beforehand. “overall this patient presents quite of a complex picture of mainly depression probably complicated with psychotic component anxiety”
  1. Examples are provided from the insights we obtained during the study