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Table 2 Ordinary least squares regression models of level of service score (range: 1–5) assigned to six sample charts by professional medical coders, by patient demographic characteristics or social need*

From: An online experiment to assess bias in professional medical coding

  Chart 1 Chart 2 Chart 3 Chart 4 Chart 5 Chart 6
  Coef SE Coef SE Coef SE Coef SE Coef SE Coef SE
Experimental Arm 1 (Racial Bias)
 White patient (ref)             
 African-American patient −0.078 (0.13) 0.123 (0.15) 0.109 (0.14) 0.020 (0.13) 0.057 (0.15) 0.107 (0.15)
Experimental Arm 2 (Age Bias)
 Middle-aged patient (ref)             
 Older adult patient −0.006 (0.15) 0.284 (0.15)* 0.300 (0.13)** −0.015 (0.12) −0.140 (0.11) −0.157 (0.23)
Experimental Arm 3 (Ability Bias)
 Patient without disabilities (ref)             
 Patient with hearing/visual/physical disability 0.007 (0.13) 0.088 (0.13) 0.058 (0.12) 0.015 (0.12) 0.110 (0.12) −0.020 (0.17)
Experimental Arm (Gender Bias)
 Male patient (ref)             
 Female patient −0.250 (0.13)* −0.073 (0.13) −0.200 (0.12)* 0.143 (0.12) −0.024 (0.13) 0.181 (0.17)
Experimental Arm 5 (Social Need)
 No social need (ref)             
 Housing Insecurity 0.118 (0.13) 0.055 (0.13) 0.105 (0.09) −0.107 (0.12) −0.055 (0.11) 0.038 (0.17)
 Food Insecurity 0.076 (0.13) 0.076 (0.12) 0.026 (0.09) 0.015 (0.11) 0.023 (0.11) 0.121 (0.17)
  1. Source: Original data from an online experiment of professional medical coders in the US, August–September, 2017. * Models control for respondent gender, age in years, race/ethnicity, and years worked as a professional medical coder. † Chart 6 contrasts a female patient to a patient with no identified gender *p < 0.10, **p < 0.05