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Table 3 Prescription of combinations of psychotropic drugs, PICP and PIPS in 2000, and 2016, among patients in three nursing homes with 386 and 416 patients the respective years

From: A retrospective comparison of inappropriate prescribing of psychotropics in three Norwegian nursing homes in 2000 and 2016 with prescribing quality indicators

  2000 2016 p-value
Patients n (%) n (%) Patients n (%) n (%)
Combination of categories 80 (20.7)   210 (50.5)   < 0.001
 Antidepressants + antipsychotics   26 (32.5)   62 (29.5) 0.622
 Antidepressants + anxiolytics-hypnotics   32 (40.0)   127 (60.5) 0.002
 Antidepressants + antiepileptics   2 (2.5)   28 (13.3) 0.005
 Antipsychotics + anxiolytics-hypnotics   31 (38.8)   95 (45.2) 0.319
 Antipsychotics + antiepileptics   4 (5.0)   15 (7.1) 0.605
 Anxiolytics-hypnotics + antiepileptics   10 (12.5)   38 (18.1) 0.252
Potentially inappropriate combinations of psychotropic drugs (PICP) 30 (7.8)   116 (27.9)   < 0.001
 Two or more antidepressants   6 (20.0)   40 (34.5) 0.153
 Two or more antipsychotics   11 (37.0)   8 (6.9) < 0.001
 Two or more anxiolytics-hypnotics   7 (23.0)   86 (74.1) < 0.001
 Two or more antiepileptics*   5 (17.0)   1 (0.9) 0.001
 Two or more psychotropic drugs with anticholinergic effects   3 (10.0)    
Potentially inappropriate psychotropic drugs (PIPS) 69 (17.9)   47 (11.3)   0.008
 Long acting benzodiazepines
 Diazepam   14 (20.3)   33 (70.2)  
 Flunitrazepam   5 (7.2)   0  
 Nitrazepam   11 (15.9)   2 (4.3)  
Psychotropic drugs with anticholinergic effects
 Antidepressants      
 Amitriptyline   8 (11.6)   2 (4.3)  
 Clomipramine   1 (1.4)   0  
 Nortriptyline   6 (8.7)   0  
 Antipsychotics      
 Chlorpromazine   7 (10.1)   0  
 Chlorprotixene   2 (2.9)   3 (6.4)  
 Levomepromazine   18 (26.1)   4 (8.5)  
 Prochlorperazine   2 (2.9)   0  
Anxiolytics-hypnotics      
 Hydroxyzine   3 (4.3)   3 (6.4)  
  1. Chi-square or Fischer’s exact test was used for comparison of proportions. Notice that patients can be prescribed several concurrent categories of psychotropics. The denominator in the calculations was chosen to find the most frequent inappropriate prescribing within Combination of categories, PICP and PIPS. *Not included in definition of PICP