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Table 3 Patient centred variables associated with unplanned ICU admission

From: Patient centred variables with univariate associations with unplanned ICU admission: a systematic review

Variable High Quality +'ve Association (ref) Moderate Quality +'ve Association (ref) Low Quality +'ve Association (ref) Negative association (ref) Overall Category
History of congestive heart failure (cardiovascular disorder) [21, 29]     Strong Comorbidities
History of diabetes (metabolic disorder) [21, 29]     Strong Comorbidities
Male [20, 21, 28]     Strong Demographic
Increasing age [18, 20, 21, 28] [16] [27]   Strong Demographic
Diagnosis of hepatic disease (gastrointestinal disorder) [28, 30]     Strong Diagnosis
Higher heart rate (> 111 bpm or higher mean in ICU group) [18, 20, 29, 30] [16] [27]   Strong Vital signs
Higher respiratory rate (> 20 bpm or higher in ICU group) [18, 20, 30] [16] [27]   Strong Vital signs
Higher temperature [18, 20]     Strong Vital signs
Lower arterial oxygen saturation (<  94% or lower in ICU group) [18, 20] [16]    Strong Vital signs
Lower diastolic blood pressure [18, 20] [16] [27]   Strong Vital signs
Lower systolic blood pressure [18, 20]     Strong Vital signs
Female     [18, 28] Negative Demographic
History of respiratory disorder [21]   [27]   Moderate Comorbidities
Urea (higher in ICU arm) [20] [24] [27]   Moderate Laboratory tests
White cell count (higher in ICU arm) [20] [24]    Moderate Laboratory tests
  1. The number in the boxes are references. Both studies from Tsai et al. [29, 30] come from the same patient data base. In accordance with the modified Grading System for Strength of Evidence, these two studies were only counted once (and weighted as a single high-quality study when shown together)