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Table 10 Comparison of AP clustering results for the 2007–2011 and 2012–2016 periods

From: A bibliometric analysis of natural language processing in medical research

Cluster 2007–2011 Cluster 2012–2016
1 Text mining; Abstracting and indexing as topic; Annotation; Database management system; Sentence 1 Text mining; Information extraction; Named entity recognition
2 Female; Male 2 Female; Male; Middle aged; Adult; Aged
3 Recall; Precision; F-measure 3 Recall; Precision; F-measure; Accuracy
4 Artificial intelligence; Information storage and retrieval; Automatic pattern recognition 4 Artificial intelligence; Semantics; Information storage and retrieval; Clinical text; Concept; Language; Sentence; Unified medical language system
5 Computational biology; Factual database; Gene; Protein; Protein-protein interaction 5 Computational biology; Factual database; Software; Free text
6 Classification; Feature; Semantics; Data mining; Natural language processing method; Unified medical language system 6 Classification; Feature; Support vector machine; Classifier
7 Patient; Disease; Medical record; Medical record system; Patient discharge; Sensitivity and specificity 7 Patient; Medical record; Electronic health record; Clinical note
8 Medical informatics; User-computer interface; Software 8 Medical informatics; Annotation; Corpus; Gene; Social medium
9 Clinical text; Accuracy; Clinical decision support system; Clinical note; Electronic health record; Natural language processing system; Support vector machine 9 Automatic pattern recognition; Controlled vocabulary; Data mining; Machine learning
10 Word; Corpus; Language 10 Sensitivity; Confidence interval; Specificity
11 Biomedical literature; Knowledge; Medline; Ontology 11 Reproducibility of result; Radiology report; Sensitivity and specificity
12 Terminology as topic; Concept; Controlled vocabulary 12 Disease; Natural language processing method; Phenotype
  1. First term in each cluster donates exemplar. Terms in bold type donate new emergent terms for 2012–2016 period compared with 2007–2011 period