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Table 4 Comparison of the monthly number of diagnostic and lab tests prescribed per 100 consultations between control and intervention groups, before and after EHR software modification (independent sample t test with Bonferroni correction)

From: The effect of a test ordering software intervention on the prescription of unnecessary laboratory tests - a randomized controlled trial

  Before (always exposed to usual EHR software) After software modification (first month, washout period, excluded)
Control Intervention p Cohen’s d Control Intervention p Cohen’s d
Diagnostic and lab tests that were withdrawn from the basic menu
 Uric acid 12.0 11.2 1.000 0.632 10.5 4.6 <0.001 6.138
 Serum protein electrophoresis 4.1 4.7 0.605 −1.039 3.2 0.6 <0.001 7.384
 Sedimentation rate 8.3 7.1 0.315 1.207 7.5 2.0 <0.001 10.818
 Rest electrocardiographya 7.7 6.4 0.465 1.073 6.6 5.4 0.070 1.544
 Lung X-ray 1.7 1.9 0.985 −0.802 1.5 1.4 1.000 0.441
All tests withdrawn 33.8 31.3 0.292 0.641 29.29 14.01 <0.001 7.174
Diagnostic and laboratory tests that were added to the basic menu
 HDL cholesterolb 19 16.7 0.640 0.958 17.2 15.9 1.000 0.702
 Triglycerides 19.6 17.4 0.830 0.862 17.7 16.1 0.640 0.874
 Faecal occult blood testb 8.5 4.9 0.015 2.207 6.9 6.2 0.425 1.003
Cervicovaginal cytologyb 4.8 4.5 1.000 0.468 4.5 4.4 1.000 0.361
Mammographyb 1.9 1.6 0.855 0.851 1.7 1.7 1.000 0.157
All tests added 53.7 45.0 0.070 1.172 48.0 44.3 0.158 0.805
Diagnostic and laboratory tests that were marked with green dots (USPSTF grade A and B)
 Glucose 22.7 20.4 0.864 0.914 20.9 18.6 0.228 1.246
 Total cholesterol 20.6 18.3 0.930 0.885 18.7 16.8 0.450 1.040
 Colonoscopy 1.4 1.2 0.042 1.943 1.5 1.1 0.006 2.345
 Flexible sigmoidoscopy 0.12 0.07 <0.001 3.002 0.05 0.08 0.186 −1.326
 DEXA 1.0 0.6 0.036 2.010 0.7 0.5 0.414 1.063
 VDRL 2.1 1.9 0.552 1.077 1.9 1.6 0.102 1.483
All green marked 82.1 70.2 0.070 1.170 74.1 66.8 0.070 1.064
Diagnostic and laboratory tests that were marked with red dots (USPSTF grade D)
 Pelvic ultrasound 1.20 1.04 0.084 1.774 1.02 1.08 1.000 −0.305
 Cancer antigen 19-9 0.18 0.13 0.616 1.093 0.17 0.08 <0.001 2.513
 Exercise electrocardiography 0.52 0.48 1.000 0.416 0.56 0.38 0.028 1.900
 Carotid artery ultrasound 0.27 0.23 1.000 0.750 0.25 0.15 0.021 1.978
 Spirometry 0.47 0.34 0.021 2.307 0.45 0.52 0.812 −0.902
 Hepatitis B surface antigen 1.60 1.34 0.084 1.756 1.59 1.24 0.028 1.925
 Hepatitis C antibodies 1.15 0.91 0.021 2.207 1.18 0.91 0.014 2.045
All red marked 13.1 10.9 0.021 1.583 11.8 9.8 0.003 1.941
  1. aTests that were also marked with red dots. bTests that were also marked with green dots
  2. α- DXA Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, β-VDRL Venereal Disease Research Laboratory