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Table 1 Hazard ratios (r) associated with specific behaviours derived from recent epidemiological studies, translated into ‘changes in effective age’ (t) through the formula t ≈ 10 ln(r)

From: How old are you, really? Communicating chronic risk through ‘effective age’ of your body and organs

Exposure/behaviour Estimated hazard ratio r Change in effective age if behaviour present (years) Reference
Smoking 20 cigarettes a day 2.20 +8 [30]
Eating 50 g processed meat a day 1.18 +2 [31]
Watching 2 h of TV a day 1.08 +1 [32]
An extra 5 units of BMI (Kg/m2) above 25. 1.29 +3 [33]
Minimal exercise (compared to inactivity) 0.82 −2 [34]
Further exercise (compared to minimal) 0.92 −1 [34]
Eating fruit and vegetables (per 2 portions a day) 0.90 −1 [35]
Taking statins (higher-risk patients) 0.91 −1 [36]