|Short title||Choice||Adherence with chosen option||Preference-linked health outcomes (e.g. anxiety, depression, regret)||Health outcomes||Health services outcomes|
|Davison (1997) ||n.m.||n.m.||
Lower state anxiety levels at 6 weeks.|
No differences in levels of depression at 6 weeks.
|Dolan (2002) ||No differences in decision (i.e. the proportion of colorectal cancer screening plans carried out) b||n.m.||n.m.||n.m.||n.m.|
|Fraenkel (2007) ||n.m.||n.m.||Greater arthritis self-efficacy.||n.m.||n.m.|
|Fraenkel (2012) ||
A small proportion of the IG (n = 5) expressed a preference for medication that was not concordant with their current treatment plan.|
No change in treatment plan.
No differences in anxiety.
No differences in worry about stroke and about bleeding.
|Hanson (2011) ||n.m.||
After 3 months: Residents in the IG had greater use of some assisted oral feeding techniques (i.e. were more likely to receive a dysphagia diet and showed a trend toward greater staff eating assistance).|
No differences in tube feeding after 9 months.
|No differences in decisional regret for surrogates.||
Less weight loss after 9 months.|
No differences in mortality.
|Man-Son-Hing (1999) ||
More IG patients made a definite choice about antithrombotic therapy (aspirin or warfarin).|
Slightly more IG patients preferred to continue taking aspirin rather than switch to warfarin.
A similar % of IG and CG reported that they, rather than their physician, made the decision.
|After 6 months: A similar % of IG and CG continued to take the therapy that was initially chosen.||n.m.||n.m.||n.m.|
|Mathers (2012) ||No sign difference in proportion undecided (although patients in IG were three times more likely to change from undecided to decided).||n.m.||n.m.||No significant difference in the glycaemic control.||n.m.|
|Mathieu (2007) ||
IG women were less likely to be undecided.|
Among those women who made a decision, there were no differences in intention to stop or continue screening.
No differences in participation in screening.
No differences in anxiety.
No differences in breast cancer worry.
|McAlister (2005) ||After 3 months: Increase in the proportion of patients receiving therapy appropriate to their stroke risk (i.e. 12 % absolute improvement in IG as compared to CG).||After 12 months: No difference in proportion of patients taking appropriate therapy (i.e. care in both IG and CG had regressed towards baseline levels).||n.m.||n.m.||n.m.|
|Montori (2011) ||No differences in distribution of prescriptions (bisphosphonates were started by 44 % of IG patients and 40 % of CG patients).||Adherence at 6 months was similarly high across both groups (self-reported), but the proportion with more than 80 % of days covered was higher in the IG (pharmacy records).||n.m.||n.m.||n.m.|
|Partin (2004) ||
IG1 and IG2 were less likely to intend to have a PSA.|
2 weeks post-target appointment: No differences in PSA testing rates.
|1 year post-target appointment: No differences in PSA testing rates.||n.m.||n.m.||n.m.|
|Stirling (2012) ||n.m.||n.m.||Less increase in carer burden (however not statistically significant, possibly due to small sample size).||n.m.||n.m.|
|Thomson (2007) ||Participants in the IG not already on warfarin were much less likely to start warfarin than participants not already on warfarin in the CG.||n.m.||There was a significant fall in anxiety immediately after the clinic, but no differences in reduction between IG and CG.||No differences in strokes and bleeds requiring admission.||
No differences in GP consultations.
No differences in hospital appointments.
|Volandes (2009b) ||IG group was more likely to prefer comfort care as their goal of care.||6 weeks after the intervention: IG had more stable preferences over time.|
|Volandes (2011) ||IG group was more likely to prefer comfort care as their goal of care.||n.m.||n.m.||n.m.||n.m.|
|Weymiller (2007) ||30 % of IG patients and 21 % of CG patients not receiving statin at baseline started statin therapy immediately after the visit (not reported whether this difference was significant). IG patients with 10-year cardiovascular risk greater than 15 % most often started statin therapy.||
Using the decision aid was not associated with stopping statin therapy and was associated with greater statin adherence at 3 months. Of 33 IG patients taking statin drugs at 3 months, 2 reported missing 1 dose or more in the last week compared with 6 of 29 patients in the CG group taking statin drugs.|
Overall, there was no difference in adherence to patient choice at 3 months.
|Wolf (2000) ||No difference in screening interest between the two IGs and the CG b||n.m.||n.m.||n.m.||n.m.|