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Table 2 Automation, Usability and Clinical Information Technology (CIT) Scores by Hospital Characteristic

From: Hospital characteristics associated with highly automated and usable clinical information systems in Texas, United States

   Crude Unadjusted Adjusted*
Hospital Characteristic Physicians,
n (%)
Mean p β p β p
   Automation
Teaching Status        
Non-teaching 474 (77%) 18.6   ref ref ref ref
Teaching 141 (23%) 23.6 <.001 4.92 0.089 3.38 0.172
Urban Safety Net Status        
Non-safety set 535 (87%) 19.1   ref ref ref ref
Safety net 80 (13%) 23.6 0.008 4.62 0.311 0.463 0.92
Bedsize        
<350 268 (44%) 18.1   ref ref ref ref
≥ 350 347 (56%) 21.0 0.012 2.65 0.126 1.34 0.377
Ownership        
Not-for-profit 347 (58%) 20.0   ref ref ref ref
Government 80 (13%) 24.0   4.02 0.368 3.86 0.385
For-profit 170 (29%) 18.0 0.007 -2.43 0.130 -2.24 0.201
Average Age of Plant        
> 10 years 367 (60%) 20.2   ref ref ref ref
≥ 10 years 248 (40%) 19.1 0.353 -1.22 0.493 -3.09 0.093
Total Margin        
< 0.01 236 (38%) 20.92   ref ref ref ref
≥ 0.01 379 (62%) 19.0 0.106 -2.05 0.325 -1.50 0.421
IT Operating Expense        
<$1 M 163 (28%) 16.2   ref ref ref ref
≥ $1 M 428 (72%) 20.7 0.001 4.06 0.006 4.11 0.004
IT Capital Expense        
<$75,000 193 (38%) 16.6   ref ref ref ref
≥ $75,000 313 (62%) 21.8 0.001 5.08 0.004 3.24 0.041
Total IT Staff        
<10 248 (44%) 17.2   ref ref ref ref
≥ 10 318 (56%) 21.5 0.001 4.13 0.018 4.75 0.006
   Usability
Teaching Status        
Non-teaching 474 (77%) 39.8   ref ref ref ref
Teaching 141 (23%) 42.4 0.089 3.24 0.166 9.3 0.509
Urban Safety Net Status        
Non-safety set 535 (87%) 40.7   ref ref ref ref
Safety net 80 (13%) 38.4 0.219 -1.54 0.636 -3.34 0.424
Bedsize        
<350 268 (44%) 39.0   ref ref ref ref
≥ 350 347 (56%) 41.5 0.058 2.24 0.217 2.08 0.249
Ownership        
Not-for-profit 347 (58%) 40.2   ref ref ref ref
Government 80 (13%) 39.2   -.418 0.904 -0.50 0.888
For-profit 170 (29%) 42.2 0.482 1.41 0.486 1.00 0.650
Average Age of Plant        
> 10 years 367 (60%) 40.3   ref ref ref ref
≥ 10 years 248 (40%) 40.6 0.835 -0.22 0.905 -1.41 0.460
Total Margin        
< 0.01 236 (38%) 39.0   ref ref ref ref
≥ 0.01 379 (62%) 41.3 0.070 2.03 0.271 2.12 0.286
IT Operating Expense        
<$1 M 163 (28%) 40.2   ref ref ref ref
≥ $1 M 428 (72%) 40.9 0.606 0.95 0.628 0.59 0.802
IT Capital Expense        
<$75,000 193 (38%) 41.7   ref ref ref ref
≥ $75,000 313 (62%) 40.1 0.282 -1.23 0.490 -0.70 0.726
Total IT Staff        
<10 248 (44%) 39.6   ref ref ref Ref
≥ 10 318 (56%) 41.4 0.184 2.11 0.257 1.53 0.605
   CIT
Teaching Status        
Non-teaching 474 (77%) 29.2   ref ref ref ref
Teaching 141 (23%) 33.2 <.001 4.14 0.054 4.64 .002
Urban Safety Net Status        
Non-safety set 535 (87%) 30.0   ref ref ref ref
Safety net 80 (13%) 31.3 .3318 1.83 0.618 -1.21 0.660
Bedsize        
<350 268 (44%) 28.6   ref ref ref ref
≥ 350 347 (56%) 31.3 0.004 2.52 0.080 1.76 0.147
Ownership        
Not-for-profit 347 (58%) 30.1   ref ref ref ref
Government 80 (13%) 31.9   2.09 0.572 1.97 0.598
For-profit 170 (29%) 30.1 0.447 -0.48 0.734 -0.62 0.688
Average Age of Plant        
> 10 years 367 (60%) 30.3   ref ref ref ref
≥ 10 years 248 (40%) 29.9 0.736 -0.52 0.717 -1.93 0.224
Total Margin        
< 0.01 236 (38%) 29.9   ref ref ref ref
≥ 0.01 379 (62%) 30.3 0.739 0.17 0.914 0.54 0.340
IT Operating Expense        
<$1 M 163 (28%) 28.2   ref ref ref ref
≥ $1 M 428 (72%) 30.9 0.011 2.61 0.164 1.94 0.309
IT Capital Expense        
<$75,000 193 (38%) 29.2   ref ref ref ref
≥ $75,000 313 (62%) 31.1 0.080 1.10 0.462 0.74 0.630
Total IT Staff        
<10 248 (44%) 28.5   ref ref ref ref
≥ 10 318 (56%) 31.5 0.002 3.12 0.189 2.48 0.197
  1. * The unadjusted and adjusted regression models were adjusted for percentage of complete responses and clustered by hospital. The adjusted models include coefficients adjusted for bed size, total margin, and ownership. ref-reference group.