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Table 1 Frequencies (and percentages) for each variable analysed among the 56 data integration projects reviewed

From: Reviewing the integration of patient data: how systems are evolving in practice to meet patient needs

Variable n (%) Until 99 n = 7 2000–2 n = 20 2003–5 n = 29 p § Projects numbers
Area covered by data integration
   Region or country 35 (63) 2 (29) 11 (55) 22 (76)   P 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 10, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21, 22, 27, 29, 31, 34, 35, 36, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 47, 48, 50, 51, 52, 55
   Hospital 16 (29) 4 (57) 7 (35) 5 (17) .037 P 5, 6, 9, 11, 12, 18, 23, 24, 26, 32, 33, 37, 46, 53, 54, 56
   Department 5 (9) 1 (14) 2 (10) 2 (7)   P 7, 25, 28, 30, 49
Missing 0 (0) 0(0) 0(0) 0(0)   
Sources for patient data integration
   Hospitals 33 (69) 4 (67) 13 (68) 16 (70) * P 2, 4, 5, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 20, 22, 23, 24, 27, 29, 31, 32, 34, 36, 37, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 47, 48, 50, 51, 53, 55, 56
   Hospital departments 19 (40) 2 (33) 10 (53) 7 (30) * P 7, 9, 12, 14, 15, 21, 25, 26, 27, 28, 30, 31, 33, 37, 39, 46, 49, 53, 54
   Primary care 16 (33) 0 (0) 5 (26) 11 (48) .020 P 8, 12, 15, 16, 17, 22, 27, 29, 31, 34, 35, 38, 40, 41, 44, 48
   Health portal 4 (8) 0 (0) 0 (0) 4 (17) .054 P 13, 20, 34, 49
   Private clinics 1 (2) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (4) * P 13
   Private labs 1 (2) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (4) * P 13
Missing 8 (14) 1(14) 1(5) 6(21)   
User groups
   Health professionals 42 (100) 5 (100) 18 (100) 19 (100)   P 4, 8, 9, 10, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 53, 54, 55, 56
   Medical users 20 (48) 1 (20) 8 (44) 11 (58) * P 9, 10, 17, 18, 20, 25, 29, 35, 36, 37, 38, 40, 41, 43, 44, 48, 49, 54, 55, 56
   Nurses 4 (10) 1 (20) 2 (11) 1 (5) * P 38, 42, 55, 56
   Other health prof. 5 (12) 0 (0) 4 (22) 1 (5) * P 10, 18, 31, 42, 44
   Patients 2 (5) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2 (11) * P 13, 38
   Clerical 1 (2) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (5) * P 22
Missing 14 (25) 2(29) 2(10) 10(34)   
Type of data integrated
   Diagnosis and Problems 40 (77) 6 (86) 13 (76) 21 (75) * P 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 29, 30, 31, 32, 34, 36, 37, 38, 40, 41, 42, 43, 46, 47, 49, 50, 51, 53, 54, 55
   Images 35 (67) 4 (57) 14 (82) 17 (61) * P 3, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 20, 21, 22, 25, 26, 27, 28, 30, 31, 32, 33, 36, 37, 39, 42, 43, 44, 46, 47, 48, 49, 51, 54, 56
   Lab results 34 (65) 6 (86) 11 (65) 17 (61) * P 1, 2, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 21, 22, 23, 24, 26, 27, 28, 29, 32, 34, 36, 37, 39, 40, 42, 43, 45, 47, 51, 54, 55, 56
   Discharge 33 (63) 2 (29) 12 (71) 19 (68) * P 1, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27, 29, 34, 37, 39, 40, 41, 42, 44, 47, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 56
   Procedures 31 (60) 4 (57) 9 (53) 18 (64) * P 1, 2, 3, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16, 21, 22, 25, 26, 27, 29, 32, 34, 36, 40, 42, 43, 44, 46, 47, 49, 50, 51, 53, 54, 55
   Prescription 28 (54) 4 (57) 8 (47) 16 (57) * P 1, 2, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 17, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27, 29, 32, 38, 40, 42, 43, 44, 45, 47, 48, 51, 53, 54, 55, 56
   Admission 25 (48) 3 (43) 7 (41) 15 (54) * P 1, 2, 3, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 18, 20, 22, 23, 24, 27, 29, 37, 39, 41, 42, 45, 47, 50, 52, 53, 54
   Transfers 16 (31) 2 (29) 6 (35) 8 (29) * P 1, 10, 11, 12, 18, 20, 22, 23, 24, 29, 37, 42, 47, 50, 53, 54
   Referrals 10 (19) 0 (0) 3 (18) 7 (25) * P 1, 15, 22, 27, 34, 37, 38, 41, 47, 52
   Lab orders 9 (17) 0 (0) 3 (18) 6 (21) * P 1, 10, 12, 13, 18, 22, 27, 42, 51
   Bio-signal 9 (17) 1 (14) 6 (35) 2 (7) * P 3, 22, 27, 42, 44, 51, 53, 54, 56
Missing 4 (7) 0(0) 3(43) 1(3)   
Type of model †,ℓ
   Semantic – all data structured 21 (44) 1 (20) 8 (47) 12 (46)   P 5, 9, 13, 15, 16, 20, 21, 22, 25, 29, 30, 33, 34, 37, 38, 40, 50, 52, 54, 55, 56
   Middleware 19 (40) 3 (60) 8 (47) 8 (31)   P 4, 11, 14, 18, 19, 24, 26, 27, 31, 32, 39, 41, 43, 44, 46, 47, 48, 49, 51
   Direct communication 5 (10) 1 (20) 1 (6) 1 (12)   P 2, 6, 7, 23, 45
   Generic – structure and data dynamic 3 (6) 0 (0) 0 (0) 3 (12)   P 1, 17, 36
Missing 7 (13) 2(29) 3(15) 3(10)   
Medical informatics standards
   HL7 (includes CDA) 23 (68) 2 (67) 12 (80) 9 (56) * P 3, 4, 5, 9, 11, 14, 16, 21, 27, 29, 30, 34, 35, 37, 40, 41, 42, 44, 50, 52, 54, 55, 56
   Just CDA 5 (15) 0 (0) 1 (7) 4 (25) * P 16, 21, 27, 34, 52
   DICOM 11 (32) 2 (67) 6 (40) 3 (19) .071 P 3, 9, 14, 25, 31, 32, 34, 35, 43, 44, 51
   Other 8 (24) 2 (67) 3 (20) 3 (19) * P 3, 27, 32, 33, 35, 38, 47, 51
   GEHR 3 (9) 1 (33) 0 (0) 2 (13) * P 3, 17, 36
   SCIPHOX 1 (3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (6) * P 34
   MML 1 (3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (6) * P 13
Missing 24 (43) 4(57) 5(25) 15(52)   
Repository
   Database 34 (77) 5 (83) 10 (63) 19 (86) * P 2, 4, 7, 9, 12, 13, 16, 18, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 29, 31, 32, 33, 38, 39, 40, 41, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 54, 55, 56
   Virtual 11 (25) 1 (17) 7 (44) 3 (14) * P 5, 6, 8, 14, 21, 28, 35, 37, 42, 49, 54
   Files 7 (16) 1 (17) 2 (13) 4 (18) * P 9, 10, 20, 22, 26, 31, 38
   PACS 1 (2) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (5) * P 25
   LDAP 1 (2) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (5) * P 27
Missing 13 (23) 1(14) 4(20) 8(28)   
Communication method
   Database direct access 9 (30) 4 (80) 1 (13) 4 (24) .063 P 2, 23, 26, 28, 32, 39, 41, 46, 54
   Web services 8 (27) 0 (0) 1 (13) 7 (41) .042 P 5, 6, 16, 20, 33, 38, 49, 52
   CORBA 4 (13) 0 (0) 2 (25) 2 (12) * P 14, 27, 33, 47
   E-Mail 3 (10) 0 (0) 1 (13) 2 (12) * P 15, 20, 34
   DICOM 3 (10) 0 (0) 1 (13) 2 (12) * P 25, 31, 43
   DDE 3 (10) 0 (0) 2 (25) 1 (6) * P 7, 14, 34
   DHE 3 (10) 0 (0) 2 (25) 1 (6) * P 19, 47, 48
   CGI 3 (10) 2 (40) 0 (0) 1 (6) .082 P 32, 39, 55
   Agents 2 (7) 1 (20) 0 (0) 1 (6) * P 11, 26
Missing 28 (50) 2(29) 12(60) 14(48)   
How data is made available to users
   Web browser 34 (92) 5 (83) 11 (100) 18 (90) * P 2, 3, 5, 6, 9, 10, 13, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 23, 25, 26, 27, 29, 31, 32, 35, 36, 38, 39, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 47, 48, 49, 55, 56
   Client application 7 (19) 1 (17) 3 (27) 3 (15) * P 9, 12, 13, 24, 33, 48, 51
Missing 19 (34) 1(14) 9(45) 9(31)   
How data is made available to other Information Systems
   Web services 7 (88) 0 (-) 2 (100) 5 (83)   P 6, 11, 16, 18, 27, 35, 49
   CORBA 1 (13) 0 (-) 0 (0) 1 (17) * P 27
Missing 48 (86) 7(100) 18(90) 23(79)   
  1. †: single variable with mutually exclusive response categories
  2. ‡: multiple variables with dichotomous response categories (yes or no)
  3. *: not statistically significant
  4. §: linear-by-linear association chi-square test used (except in variable type of model)
  5. ℓ:models used for semantic interoperability: direct communication when the systems create different interfaces to connect; middleware when an API is used to talk with the central repository; semantic when all data has a predefined message template; generic when the document structure accepts evolution without re-defining the whole template. P value calculated using Pearson association chi-square test.