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Table 1 Smoking-related, non-CVD mortality and the relative risk used for smokers quoted by the US Surgeon General's report of 1989 based on the 4-year follow-up of the US Cancer Society's 50-state study (CPS-II) [17].

From: Description and validation of a Markov model of survival for individuals free of cardiovascular disease that uses Framingham risk factors

Cause of death Relative risk for smokers
  Males Females
COPD 9.65 10.47
Other Respiratory 1.99 2.18
Carcinoma Oesophagus 7.6 10.25
Carcinoma Pancreas 2.14 2.33
Carcinoma Larynx 10.48 17.78
Carcinoma Lung 22.36 11.94
Carcinoma Cervix - 2.14
Carcinoma Kidney 2.95 1.41
Carcinoma Bladder/other urinary 2.86 2.58
Carcinoma Lip, Oral cavity, Pharynx 27.48 5.59