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Table 1 Characteristics of physicians, patients, and pharmaceutical claims included in the analysis

From: Effect of electronic prescribing with formulary decision support on medication tier, copayments, and adherence

Characteristics Non-users Low users High users p-value*
PCPs  
N (%) 1570 (86%) 187 (10%) 74 (4%)  
Specialty  
  Family practice 490 (31%) 67 (36%) 28 (38%) 0.03
Internal medicine 838 (54%) 103 (55%) 35 (47%)
Non-surgical 2 (0.13%) 1 (0.53%) 1 (1.4%)
Pediatrics 235 (15%) 16 (8.6%) 10 (14%)
Practice size  
  1 physician 783 (50%) 64 (34%) 29 (39%) <0.01
2–5 physicians 612 (39%) 90 (48%) 39 (53%)
6–10 physicians 148 (10%) 30 (16%) 6 (8.1%)
11–25 physicians 20 (1.3%) 3 (1.6%) 0 (0%)
> 25 physicians 2 (0.13%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)
Patients (PCPs’ primary care patients)  
N (%) 12327 (86%) 1505 (10%) 578 (4.0%)  
Age, mean ± SD 45.8 ± 19.5 49.2 ± 16.0 47.7 ± 18.3 <0.0001
Female, N (%) 6367 (52%) 776 (52%) 285 (49%) 0.55
Neighborhood income
  <45 k 2132 (18%) 261 (18%) 92 (17%) 0.13
45 k – 75 k 6970 (58%) 878 (60%) 310 (56%)
> = 75 k 2899 (24%) 321 (22%) 152 (27%)
Claims (pre-2006 ARB and IS index claims for >15 days of medication)  
N (%) 12563 (86%) 1533 (10%) 586 (4.0%)  
ARB claims, N (%) 9094 (72%) 1238 (81%) 448 (77%)  
Frequency > once daily, N (%) 1563 (12%) 125 (8.2%) 65 (11%)  
E-prescribing adoption dates (Synthetic)  
Median   August 4, 2005 July 27, 2005 August 19, 2005 0.60
1st quartile   June 2, 2005 June 2, 2005 June 8, 2005
3rd quartile   September 29, 2005 September 27, 2005 October 12, 2005
  1. *Fisher’s exact test was used for categorical comparisons because of low or zero counts in some cells. ANOVA was used for continuous variables.
  2. **Patients having an index ARB or IS claim.