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Table 1 Input parameters and output validation for the nationally average and average academic environments

From: A flexible simulation platform to quantify and manage emergency department crowding

Input parameters National average Academic average
MTA Beds 321 415
FT Beds 01 62
Physicians 32 42
PAs 02 12
Nurses 82 132
Nurse to Patient Ratio 1:43 1:43
Mean Arrivals per Day 1551 1955
Mean LWBS Threshold 3.5 hrs2 3.5 hrs2
Mean Nursing Assessment 5 min2 5 min2
Mean Physician Assessment 10 min2 10 min2
Mean Lab TAT 30 min2 45 min2
Mean Imaging TAT 75 min2 90 min2
Admit Rate 12.8%1 25.8%5
Mean Boarding Delay 1.63 hrs4 4.43 hrs5
Outputs Simulated Actual 1 Simulated Actual 5
LWBS Rate (%) 3.06 (1.03) 3.00 4.54 (0.88) 4.50
Door-to-Event Time (hrs)
Doctor 0.98 (0.10) 0.97 1.25 (0.07) 1.31
Disposition 3.06 (0.15) 3.08 3.41 (0.08) 3.41
Exit 3.71 (0.15) 3.73 5.63 (0.10) 5.67
Patients/Doctor/Hour 2.41 (0.02) 1.8-2.83 2.21 (0.01) 2.51
Patients/Bed/Year 1764.5 (16.8) no data 1513.8 (9.67) 1360.3
  1. Input parameters for the nationally average and average academic environments (above). Simulated outputs reported as mean (sd) of 30 one-month simulations closely approximate actual data (below). Note: between 2:00am and 10:00am, the number of physicians is reduced by 1 and the number of nurses is reduced by 3. These parameters are modulated to be acuity-dependent according to an ED provider heuristic; the figures reported are the mean over all patients. TAT: turnaround time. Sources: 1CDC [29], 2ED Provider Estimate, 3ACEP [31, 34], 4CMS [30], 5AAAEM Survey [32].