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Table 3 Characteristics of children observed under the two systems

From: Using electronic technology to improve clinical care – results from a before-after cluster trial to evaluate assessment and classification of sick children according to Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) protocol in Tanzania

  Paper-based system Electronic system  
  N = 671 N = 550 p-value*
Female 49% 52% 0.295
Age Category    0.499
  less than 6 months 11% 9%  
  6 months - 1 year 18% 21%  
  1 year - 2 years 26% 27%  
  2 years - 5 years 44% 42%  
Median temperature,  Celcius (IQR) 38 (37–39) 38 (37–39) 0.445
Presentation of illnesses according to expert classification
Some pneumonia 23% 23% 0.665
Severe pneumonia 1% 2%  
Some dehydration 1% 1% 0.373
Severe dehydration <1% <1%  
Some diarrhea <1% <1% 1.000
Dysentery 2% 2%  
Some malaria 84% 82% 0.699
Severe malaria 2% 2%  
Low weight 3% 1% 0.047
Severely underweight <1% <1%  
Anemia 17% 14% 0.291
Severely anemic <1% <1%  
Any severe disease 8% 9% 0.535
Competing illnesses, pneumonia plus  
  Dehydration 3% 1% 0.459
  Diarrhea 1% 1% 1.000
  Malaria 91% 89% 0.559
  Ear Infection 1% 2% 0.336
  Low weight 6% 2% 0.236
  Anemia 20% 22% 0.670
Competing illnesses, malaria plus
  Pneumonia 26% 26% 0.832
  Dehydration 2% 1% 0.244
  Diarrhea 1% 2% 0.801
  Ear Infection 2% 3% 0.272
  Low weight 4% 1% 0.019
  Anemia 18% 16% 0.458
  1. * p-values comparing paper-based and electronic systems using Wilcoxon Rank-sum Test for temperature and Fisher’s Exact Test for remaining variables.