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Table 3 Diagnostic performance of prediction models in the internal and external validation groups

From: Diabetic retinopathy risk prediction for fundus examination using sparse learning: a cross-sectional study

  AUC (95% CI) Accuracy (%) (95% CI) Sensitivity (%) (95% CI) Specificity (%) (95% CI) PPV (%) NPV (%)
(A) Internal validation group (N = 163)
  LASSO 0.81 (0.74-0.86) 73.6 (66.0-80.1) 77.4 (70.1-83.5) 72.7 (65.1-79.3) 40.0 93.2
  LR-BS 0.79 (0.72-0.85) 64.4* (56.5-71.7) 83.9 (77.1-89.1) 59.8 (51.9-67.4) 32.9 94.0
  HbA1c 0.69* (0.62-0.76) 66.3* (58.4-73.4) 77.4 (70.1-83.5) 63.6 (55.7-70.9) 33.3 92.3
  FPG 0.54* (0.46-0.62) 57.7* (49.7-65.3) 61.3 (53.3-68.7) 56.8 (48.8-64.5) 25.0 86.2
  Duration of diabetes 0.72* (0.66-0.79) 57.1* (49.1-64.7) 87.1 (80.7-91.7) 50.0 (42.1-57.9) 29.0 94.3
(B) External validation group (N = 562)
  LASSO 0.82 (0.78-0.85) 75.2 (71.3-78.7) 72.1 (68.0-75.8) 76.0 (72.1-79.5) 43.7 91.3
  LR-BS 0.79 (0.75-0.83) 68.7* (64.6-72.6) 82.0 (78.4-85.1) 65.3 (61.1-69.3) 37.9 93.3
  HbA1c 0.69* (0.65-0.73) 63.7* (59.5-67.7) 70.3 (66.2-74.1) 62.0 (57.7-66.1) 32.4 89.0
  FPG 0.65* (0.60-0.69) 68.3* (64.1-72.0) 57.7 (53.4-61.8) 73.4 (69.4-77.1) 36.0 87.0
  Duration of diabetes 0.73* (0.69-0.77) 69.6* (66.5-74.3) 64.9 (60.7-68.9) 72.0 (68.0-75.7) 37.5 88.8
  1. *AUC or accuracy is significantly different from the LASSO at the level of p < 0.05.
  2. The LASSO and LR-BS models were trained in scenario 3.
  3. AUC Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, CI Confidence interval, FPG Fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c Glycated hemoglobin, LASSO Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator, LR-BS Logistic regression with backward stepwise selection, NPV Negative predictive value, PPV Positive predictive value.