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Table 1 Characteristics of the patients with diabetes mellitus in the development dataset (KNHANES V-1)

From: Diabetic retinopathy risk prediction for fundus examination using sparse learning: a cross-sectional study

  Total diabetic patients (N = 490) Without diabetic retinopathy (N = 406) With diabetic retinopathy (N = 84) p-value
Demographics     
  Sex (male : female) 253 : 237 211 : 195 42 : 42 0.742
  Age (years) 60.8 ± 11.7 60.7 ± 11.7 61.4 ± 11.6 0.463
  Current smoke 107 (21.8) 84 (20.7) 23 (27.4) 0.177
  Alcohol (>1 serving/week) 196 (40.0) 166 (40.9) 30 (35.7) 0.378
  Physical activity (MET h/week) 14.6 ± 13.0 14.2 ± 12.01 16.4 ± 16.6 0.673
  Waist circumference (cm) 87.1 ± 9.7 87.4 ± 9.9 85.5 ± 8.3 0.112
  BMI (kg/m2) 25.0 ± 3.3 25.2 ± 3.3 23.8 ± 3.3 0.001
Medical history     
  Duration of diabetes (years) 6.2 ± 7.4 5.2 ± 6.7 10.6 ± 8.7 <0.001
  Diagnosed diabetes 331 (67.6) 252 (62.1) 79 (94.1) <0.001
  Insulin therapy 30 (6.1) 15 (3.7) 15 (17.9) <0.001
  Anti-diabetic drug 297 (60.6) 233 (57.4) 64 (76.2) <0.001
  Nondrug anti-diabetic therapy 331 (67.6) 252 (62.1) 79 (94.1) <0.001
  Diagnosed hypertension 267 (54.5) 228 (56.2) 39 (46.4) 0.103
  Drug for hypertension 254 (51.8) 216 (53.2) 38 (45.2) 0.184
  Diagnosed hyperlipidemia 145 (29.6) 118 (29.1) 27 (18.6) 0.574
  Drug for hyperlipidemia 101 (20.6) 84 (20.7) 17 (20.2) 0.926
Blood pressure     
  Systolic BP (mmHg) 126.2 ± 16.4 126.5 ± 16.1 124.9 ± 17.8 0.413
  Diastolic BP (mmHg) 75.3 ± 9.8 76.0 ± 9.7 72.1 ± 9.9 0.001
Blood test     
  HbA1c (%) 7.3 ± 1.5 7.1 ± 1.5 7.9 ± 1.5 <0.001
  FPG (mg/dL) 139.3 ± 42.5 136.8 ± 40.5 151.2 ± 49.5 0.008
  AST (IU/L) 25.4 ± 12.8 25.3 ± 12.5 25.8 ± 14.4 0.408
  ALT (IU/L) 26.3 ± 16.4 26.3 ± 16.1 25.9 ± 17.6 0.297
  Hemoglobin (g/dL) 14.1 ± 1.5 14.2 ± 1.5 13.6 ± 1.7 0.003
  Cholesterol (mg/dL) 186.3 ± 40.8 185.9 ± 39.3 187.9 ± 47.5 0.836
  HDL (mg/dL) 47.8 ± 12.1 48.0 ± 12.1 46.9 ± 12.1 0.370
  LDL (mg/dL) 109.6 ± 34.3 109.6 ± 33.8 109.7 ± 36.8 0.827
  TG (mg/dL) 180.5 ± 172.7 172.9 ± 124.8 217.4 ± 313.0 0.218
  BUN (mg/dL) 15.8 ± 5.0 15.7 ± 4.9 16.2 ± 5.3 0.543
  Serum creatinine (mg/dL) 0.87 ± 0.27 0.86 ± 0.26 0.89 ± 0.30 0.709
Urine test     
  Protein* (+) 64 (13.1) 44 (10.8) 20 (23.8) 0.001
  Glucose* (+) 123 (25.1) 90 (22.2) 33 (39.3) 0.001
  Ketone* (+) 59 (12.0) 48 (11.8) 11 (13.1) 0.744
  Bilirubin* (+) 58 (11.8) 45 (11.1) 13 (15.5) 0.257
  Blood* (+) 169 (34.5) 133 (32.8) 36 (42.9) 0.076
  Urobilinogen* (+) 6 (1.2) 4 (1.0) 2 (0.4) 0.274§
  Urine creatinine (mg/L) 123.3 ± 69.9 125.9 ± 70.8 110.8 ± 64.2 0.051
  Urine sodium (mmol/day) 124.5 ± 47.2 126.6 ± 48.1 114.3 ± 41.5 0.037
  1. *by Dipstick (0, negative; 1, positive).
  2. p-value were obtained by Chi-squared test, §Fisher’s exact test, Mann–Whitney test, and Student t-test.
  3. Table values are given as mean ± standard deviation or number (%) unless otherwise indicated.
  4. ALT Alanine aminotransferase AST Aspartate aminotransferase, BMI Body mass index, BP Blood pressure, BUN Blood urea nitrogen, FPG Fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c Glycated hemoglobin, HDL High-density lipoprotein, LDL Low-density lipoprotein, TG Triglyceride.