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Table 2 Patients characteristics of the modeling and validation groups

From: A novel differential diagnostic model based on multiple biological parameters for immunoglobulin A nephropathy

  Modeling group Validation group
  IgAN Non-IgAN IgAN Non-IgAN
Number 58 63 93 87
Age (years) 35.6 ± 12.4 39.7 ± 15.3 32.8 ± 11.6 b 43.7 ± 15.7 b
Male : female 39:19 33:30 53:40 48:39
Hypertension (%) 28 (48.3%) 28 (44.4%) 45 (48.9%) 50 (57.5%)
Body mass index (kg/m2) 24.9 ± 3.7 24.8 ± 4.0 24.1 ± 4.2 25.2 ± 4.3
Manifestation
Chronic nephritis syndrome (%) 44 (75.9%)a 23 (36.5%)a 75 (80.6%)a 31 (35.6%)a
Nephrotic syndrome (%) 10 (17.2%)a 33 (52.4%)a 10 (10.8%)a 51 (58.6%)a
Isolated proteinuria or hematuria (%) 4 (6.9%)a 7 (11.1%)a 8 (8.6%)a 5 (5.7%)a
Renal function
Normal (%) 43 (74.1%) 48 (76.2%) 67 (72.0%) 69 (79.3%)
Chronic renal insufficiency (%) 15 (25.9%) 11 (17.5%) 25 (26.9%) 14 (16.1%)
Acute renal insufficiency (%) 0 4 (6.3%) 1 (1.1%) 4 (4.6%)
  1. a P < 0.05 via Chi-square test, between IgAN and Non-IgAN; b P < 0.05 via t-test, between IgAN and Non-IgAN.
  2. Notes: Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥140 mmHg, diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg, or use of antihypertensive medications. Chronic nephritis syndrome was defined as proteinuria or hematuria with hypertension or edema. Nephrotic syndrome was defined as persistent proteinuria of more than 3.5 g/1.73 m2/24 h, hypoalbuminemia or albumin levels ≤30 g/L, edema, and varying degrees of hyperlipidemia. Isolated proteinuria or hematuria was defined as a urine protein excretion >0.3 g/1.73 m2/24 h or urine red blood cell (RBC) >3/HP with normal renal function and without hypertension and edema. Normal renal function was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) >90 ml/min/1.73 m2 on at least two occasions. Chronic renal insufficiency was defined as an estimated GFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 on at least two occasions with chronic kidney disease. Acute renal insufficiency was defined as an abrupt (within 48 h) reduction in kidney function, according to the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria.
  3. Abbreviations: IgAN, Immunoglobulin A nephropathy; Non-IgAN, non-immunoglobulin A nephropathy.