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Table 3 Outcomes of four patient subgroups in the 24 months pre- and 12 months post-CPOE implementation with adjusted risk calculated using multivariate logistic regression analysis.

From: Impact of computerized physician order entry (CPOE) system on the outcome of critically ill adult patients: a before-after study

Variable Pre-CPOE No. (%) Post-CPOE No. (%) Adjusted ORa or βb coefficient 95% CI P value
A. patients in the age group 12-17 years, N = 129
ICU mortality, No.% 9 (11) 5 (10.6) 0.78 0.1 - 4.1 0.77
Hospital mortality, No.% 14 (17.1) 7 (14.9) 0.93 0.3 - 3.2 0.90
Mechanical ventilation duration in days, mean ± SD 7.7 ± 7.2 6.3 ± 9.0 -0.19 -3.2 - 2.8 0.90
ICU LOS in days, mean ± SD 8.2 ± 7.2 8.6 ± 17.0 2.41 -2.6 - 7.4 0.34
Hospital LOS in days, mean ± SD 42.8 ± 59.4 31.6 ± 44.1 -6.70 -30.8 - 17.4 0.58
B. Admission diagnosis of sepsis, N = 638
ICU mortality, No.% 152 (39) 96 (40.3) 1.09 0.7 - 1.7 0.70
Hospital mortality, No.% 230 (59) 141 (59.2) 1.01 0.7 - 1.6 0.96
Mechanical ventilation duration in days, mean ± SD 8.4 ± 10.6 7.3 ± 8.1 -1.62 -3.3 - 0.1 0.06
ICU LOS in days, mean ± SD 9.4 ± 10.7 8.4 ± 8.7 -1.41 -3.2 - 0.4 0.13
Hospital LOS in days, mean ± SD 40.7 ± 75.6 50.1 ± 125 13.07 -5.2 - 31.3 0.16
C. Traumatic brain injury, N = 322
ICU mortality, No.% 34 (14.5) 6 (6.7) 0.53 0.1 - 1.1 0.06
Hospital mortality, No.% 44 (19) 10 (11.1) 0.62 0.3 - 1.5 0.28
Mechanical ventilation duration in days, mean ± SD 10.7 ± 7.9 9.8 ± 9.6 -0.69 -2.7 - 1.3 0.50
ICU LOS in days, mean ± SD 11.2 ± 8.2 12.8 ± 15.1 2.24 -0.3 - 4.8 0.09
Hospital LOS in days, mean ± SD 72.2 ± 118.7 72.2 ± 82.2 13.7 -14.2 - 41.6 0.33
D. APACHE II > 23, N = 1065
ICU mortality, No.% 256 (35.6) 121 (35) 1.03 0.8 - 1.4 0.87
Hospital mortality, No.% 419 (58.3) 197 (56.9) 1.00 0.7 - 1.3 1.00
Mechanical ventilation duration in days, mean ± SD 10.1 ± 10.9 10.4 ± 14.1 0.02 -1.5 - 1.5 0.98
ICU LOS in days, mean ± SD 10.9 ± 11.3 11.7 ± 14.8 0.38 -1.2 - 2.0 0.64
Hospital LOS in days, mean ± SD 49.6 ± 88.2 52.2 ± 110.8 5.02 -7.2 - 17.3 0.42
  1. These outcomes include ICU and hospital mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation and duration of stay in the hospital and the intensive care unit. Adjustment was done for age, gender, APACHE II, source of admission, reason for admission (non-operative trauma and post-operative trauma), cardiac arrest as a reason for admission, chronic health illnesses (liver, cardiovascular and renal), creatinine, INR, use of vasopressors, and mechanical ventilation.
  2. ICU: intensive care unit; CPOE: computerized physician order entry; OR: odds ratio; CI: confidence interval; APACHE: Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation CPOE: computerized physician order entry, LOS: length of stay, SD: standard deviation.
  3. a: OR is reported for categorical outcomes.
  4. b: β coefficient is reported for continuous variables.