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Table 1 Comparison of baseline characteristics of admissions to the intensive care unit pre- and post-computerized physician order entry (CPOE) implementation in four different periods: 24 months pre- vs. 12 months post-CPOE, 12 months pre- vs. 12 months post-CPOE, three months pre- vs. three months post-CPOE vs. one month pre- and one month post-CPOE.

From: Impact of computerized physician order entry (CPOE) system on the outcome of critically ill adult patients: a before-after study

Variable 24 months pre N = 1638 12 months post N = 898 P-value 12 months pre N = 813 12 months post N = 898 P-value 3-months pre N = 192 3-months post N = 239 P-value 1-month pre N = 69 1-month post N = 75 P-value
Age in years, mean ± SD 52.1 ± 21.5 52.4 ± 21.1 0.74 51.7 ± 21.7 52.4 ± 21.1 0.51 50.1 ± 21 53.6 ± 21.1 0.09 48.0 ± 22.2 50.3 ± 21.0 0.52
Female gender, N (%) 567 (34.7) 349 (38.9) 0.04 284 (34.9) 349 (38.9) 0.09 64 (33.3) 97 (40.6) 0.12 28 (40.6) 32 (42.7) 0.80
APACHE II, mean ± SD 24.1 ± 9.4 24.2 ± 9.7 0.83 24.7 ± 9.6 24.2 ± 9.7 0.36 25.1 ± 10.2 25.1 ± 10.4 1.0 25.3 ± 9.3 24.7 ± 10.9 0.75
Source of admission, N (%)
   Emergency department 450 (27.5) 179 (19.9)   223 (27.4) 179 (19.9)   64 (33.3) 50 (20.9)   25 (36.2) 22 (29.3)  
   Ward 668 40.8) 331 (36.9) 0.0001 326 (40.1) 331 (36.9) < 0.0001 75 (39.1) 101(42.3) 0.02 28 (40.6) 22 (29.3) 0.14
   Operating room 418 (25.5) 335 (39.8)   214 (26.3) 335 (39.8)   43 (22.4) 73 (30.5)   14 (20.3) 27 (36.0)  
   Other hospital 100 (6.1) 53 (5.9)   43 (5.3) 53 (5.9)   10 (5.2) 15 (6.3)   2 (2.9) 4 (5.3)  
Main reason for admission, N (%)
   Respiratory 304 (18.6) 150 (16.7) 0.24 136 (16.7) 150 (16.7) 0.99 44 (22.9) 46 (19.3) 0.35 22 (31.9) 16 (21.3) 0.15
   Cardiovascular 514 (31.4) 258 (28.7) 0.16 269 (33.1) 258 (28.7) 0.05 47 (24.5) 70 (29.3) 0.26 11 (15.9) 21 (28) 0.08
   Neurologic 119 (7.3) 66 (7.4) 0.94 60 (7.4) 66 (7.4) 0.98 22 (11.5) 23 (9.6) 0.54 10 (14.5) 2 (2.7) 0.01
   Other medical 83 (5.1) 35 (3.9) 0.18 35 (4.3) 35 (3.9) 0.67 7 (3.7) 8 (3.4) 0.87 3 (4.4) 1 (1.3) 0.27
   Non-operative trauma 229 (14) 83 (9.2) 0.0005 108 (13.3) 83 (9.2) 0.008 30 (15.6) 23 (9.6) 0.06 9 (13) 9 (12) 0.85
   Post-operative trauma 387 (23.7) 306 (34.1) < 0.0001 205(25.2) 306 (34.1) < 0.0001 42 (21.9) 69 (28.9) 0.10 14 (20.3) 26 (34.7) 0.05
   Cardiac arrest as admission diagnosis 135 (8.3) 45 (5.0) 0.002 76 (9.4) 45 (5.0) 0.0005 17 (8.9) 13 (5.4) 0.17 6(8.7) 2 (2.7) 0.11
   Sepsis on admission 420 (25.7) 251 (28.0) 0.21 241 (29.6) 251 (28.0) 0.21 51 (26.6) 67 (28.0) 0.73 16 (23.2) 19 (25.3) 0.76
Chronic health illnesses, N (%)
   Chronic liver disease 259 (15.8) 97 (10.8) 0.0005 117 (14.4) 97 (10.8) 0.03 26 (13.5) 32 (13.4) 0.96 10 (14.5) 7 (9.3) 0.34
   Chronic cardiovascular 451 (27.6) 289 (32.2) 0.01 250 (30.8) 289 (32.2) 0.52 59 (30.7) 114 (47.7) 0.0004 24 (34.8) 31 (41.3) 0.42
   Chronic respiratory 413 (25.2) 224 (24.9) 0.87 259 (31.9) 224 (24.9) 0.0015 57 (29.7) 94 (39.3) 0.04 27 (39.1) 26 (34.7) 0.58
   Chronic renal disease 349 (21.3) 157 (17.5) 0.02 210 (25.8) 157 (17.5) < .0001 54 (28.1) 64 926.8) 0.76 19 (27.5) 23 (30.7) 0.68
   Immunocompromised 228 (13.9) 124 (13.8) 0.93 117 (14.4) 124 (13.8) 0.93 19 (9.9) 42 (17.6) 0.02 7 (10.1) 11 (14.7) 0.41
Glasgow coma scale 9.2 ± 4.3 8.9 ± 4.5 0.17 8.7 ± 4.5 9.2 ± 4.3 0.01 8.4 ± 4.4 9.0 ± 4.2 0.15 8.4 ± 4.0 9.3 ± 4.0 0.22
Admission creatinine in μmol/L 163 ± 161 158 ± 146 0.44 166 ± 164 158 ± 146 0.37 195 ± 214 162 ± 142 0.08 162 ± 170 167 ± 165 0.87
Admission INR 1.6 ± 1.1 1.5 ± 0.8 0.10 1.6 ± 1.0 1.5 ± 0.8 0.24 1.5 ± 0.8 1.4 ± 1.0 0.57 1.4 ± 0.8 1.8 ± 1.5 0.09
Vasopressor use* 822 (50.2) 327 (36.4) < 0.0001 373 (45.9) 327 (36.4) < 0.0001 92 (47.9) 97 (40.6) 0.13 28 (40.6) 33 (44.0) 0.68
Mechanically ventilated, No.% 1265 (77.3) 662 (73.7) 0.04 636 (78.2) 662 (73.7) 0.03 152 (79.2) 179 (74.9) 0.29 55 (79.7) 62 (82.7) 0.65
  1. ICU: intensive care unit; CPOE: computerized physician order entry; APACHE: Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation; INR: International Normalized Ratio.
  2. * Vasopressors use was defined as use of dopamine > 5 mcg/Kg/min or any dose of norepinephrine, epinephrine, phenylephrine or vasopressin.