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Table 6 Common Boolean queries operators and their replacements used for simplifying - finding supersets of - the queries.

From: Boolean versus ranked querying for biomedical systematic reviews

operator meaning action
/or .sh. MeSH heading remove or replace with .mp.
$ truncate (similar to stemming) unchanged
limit to x limit the search to some x conditions (e.g language or publication type) remove line
.ed. entry date remove line
adj n two specific words separated by maximum n words make them separate terms connected by or
.mp. match term with subheadings, title, and abstract unchanged
.ti. match term with title words replace with .mp.
.tw. match term with title or abstract terms replace with .mp.
.fs. match term with floating (two-character) subheadings replace with .mp.
and conjunction replace with or (not always)
or disjunction unchanged
exp explode using MeSH subheadings unchanged