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Table 3 Studies of clinical outcomes using interventions of home-based telemedicine.

From: Clinical outcomes resulting from telemedicine interventions: a systematic review

Outcomes Quality Score Clinical Specialty Sample Intervention Effects
Flatley-Brennan[29] I-B AIDS 57 patients Social isolation and decision-making skill for home computer network (RCT) Reduced social isolation when controlled for depression and improved confidence in decision-making with increased use
Gustafson[30] I-A AIDS 183 patients Quality of life and hospitalizations (RCT) Improvement in active life, negative emotions, cognitive functions, social support, and participation in health care; fewer hospitalizations
Brennan[31] I-B Alzheimer's Disease 102 caregivers Social isolation and decision-making skill for home computer network (RCT) Improved decision-making confidence but no improvement in decision-making skill or social isolation
Sparks [32] II-B Cardiology 20 patients Comparison of home exercise program with transtelephonic exercise monitoring vs. hospital-based program (RCT) Both groups improved equally in cardiac function, no medical emergencies in either group
Mahmud [26] III-B Chronic Disease 12 patients Home telecare in chronic disease for frail elderly Improved compliance and control of disease process; decreased hospitalization and nursing home placement
Nakamura[25] II-B Chronic Disease 32 patients Home telecare in chronic disease for frail elderly Improvement in activities of daily living, communication, and social cognition
Johnston[24] I-B Chronic Disease 212 patients Home telecare in chronic disease for frail elderly (RCT) Both groups had comparable medication compliance, knowledge of disease, and ability for self-care
Ahring[17] II-B Diabetes Mellitus 42 patients Home blood sugar monitoring (RCT) Computer group had HgbA1c drop from 10.6% to 9.2% (-13.2%); control group from 11.2% to 10.2% (-8.9%)
Shultz[21] II-B Diabetes Mellitus 20 patients Home blood sugar monitoring (RCT) Reduced HgbA1c levels in computer group but details not given
Billiard[19] II-B Diabetes Mellitus 22 patients Home blood sugar monitoring (RCT) Computer group had HgbA1c drop from 6.7% to 6.0%; control group from 6.8% to 6.7%
DiBiase[22] II-B Diabetes Mellitus 20 patients Home blood sugar monitoring in gestational diabetes (RCT) Computer group had HgbA1c drop from 6.4% to 5.0%; control group from 7.1% to 5.7%
Frost[23] II-B Diabetes Mellitus 21 patients Home blood sugar monitoring in gestational diabetes Computer group had HgbA1c drop from 6.1% to 5.4%; control group from 6.2% to 5.7%
Marrero[16] I-B Diabetes Mellitus 106 patients Home blood sugar monitoring (RCT) Computer group had HgbA1c rise from 9.4% to 10.0%; control group from 9.9% to 10.3%; no difference in ER visits, psychological status, or family functioning
Mease[20] II-B Diabetes Mellitus 28 patients Home blood sugar monitoring (RCT) Computer group had HgbA1c fall from 9.5% to 8.2% vs. 9.5% to 8.6% for control group
Biermann[18] II-B Diabetes Mellitus 46 patients Home blood sugar monitoring (RCT) Computer group had HgbA1c fall from 8.3% to 7.3% vs. 8.0% to 6.8% for control group
Friedman[27] I-A Hypertension 267 patients Automated patient monitoring and counseling (RCT) Adherence and diastolic blood pressure improved
Cartwright[28] I-B Hypertension 99 patients Anxiety, blood pressure readings, and gestational age at delivery in home vs. hospital-monitored women (RCT) Comparable levels of anxiety, mean blood pressure, and gestational age of delivery
Gray[33] I-B Neonatology 56 patients Quality of care and hospitalization (RCT) Trend towards earlier discharge from hospital
Miyasaka[34] III-B Pulmonary 10 patients Amount of unscheduled care before and after installation of videophone access to physician Reduction in number of house calls (5 vs. 0), unscheduled hospital visits (24 vs. 5), and hospital admission days (22 vs. 10)