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Table 1 The risk model of AKI derived through a hybrid Machine Learning approach

From: Prediction of acute kidney injury risk after cardiac surgery: using a hybrid machine learning algorithm

Characteristic AOR, 95% CI β coefficient Risk score
CARE score—2
No Ref Ref 0
Yes 1.95 (1.61–2.36) 0.3284 3
CARE score—3
No Ref Ref 0
Yes 2.97 (2.25–3.92) 0.5143 5
CARE score—4
No Ref Ref 0
Yes 6.43 (1.58–9.70) 0.9298 8
Combined CABG/valve surgery
No Ref Ref 0
Yes 1.44 (1.20–1.73) 0.1854 2
Emergent operative status
No Ref Ref 0
Yes 1.54 (1.14–1.89) 0.2080 2
Anemia
No Ref Ref 0
Yes 1.77 (1.48–1.97) 0.2852 3
Atrial fibrillation
No Ref Ref 0
Yes 1.43 (1.17–1.63) 0.1778 2
NYHA Class 3
No Ref Ref 0
Yes 1.35 (1.17–1.63) 0.1501 1
Left ventricle ejection fraction—3
No Ref Ref 0
Yes 1.39 (1.11–1.73) 0.1644 1
Redo sternotomy
No Ref Ref 0
Yes 1.40 (1.09–1.79) 0.1778 2
Hypertension
No Ref Ref 0
Yes 1.43 (1.21–1.73) 0.2102 2
Preoperative intra-aortic balloon pump therapy
No Ref Ref 0
Yes 2.98 (1.66–4.89) 0.5486 5
Former smoker
No Ref Ref 0
Yes 1.25 (1.08–1.44) 0.1107 1
BMI 1.04 (1.03–1.06) 0.0350  
 ≤ 18    − 0.385  − 4
19–24   Ref 0
25–29   0.1925 2
 ≥ 30   0.6125 6
  1. CARE score, Cardiac Anesthesia Risk Evaluation (CARE) mortality risk score; CABG, Coronary artery bypass grafting; NYHA class, New York Heart Association Classification; BMI, body mass index