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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Telemedicine application in patients with chronic disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author, year Participants with disease Telemedicine inventions Intervention providers Outcome index Experiment duration Conclusion
Han Yun et al. [30] (Diabetes)
(1) Experiment sample size:46
(2) Control sample size:45
Age:25–75
Telemedicine inventions: web-based consultation Endocrinologist; nurse; nutritionist; exercise therapist; doctor HbA1c
FBG
PBG
3/6/12 months FBG was reduced
Kun et al. [40] (Diabetes)
(1) Experiment sample size: 97
Age: 52.6士9.1
(2) Control sample size:89
Age: 54.7土10.3
Telemedicine inventions: Telemonitoring Nurse
Doctor
HbA1C
FBG
HDL-C
LDL-C
3/6 months FBG, HbA1c were improved
Lee et al. [28] (Diabetes)
(1) Experiment sample size:120
Age: 56.1 ± 9.2
(2) Control sample size:120
Age: 70.9 ± 6.8
Telemedicine inventions: Telemonitoring Doctor
Researcher
Clinician
HbA1C
FBG
BP
LDL
Total cholesterol
1/3/6/12 months SBP and total cholesterol were statistically significant
Shea et al. [38] (Diabetes)
(1) Experiment sample size:700
Age: 70.8 ± 6.5
(2) Control sample size:717
Age: 70.9 ± 6.8
Telemedicine inventions: Remote consultation Nurse case manages; physician HbA1c
LDL
BP
12 months HbA1c, BP and LDL were improved
Shea et al. [39] (Diabetes)
(1) Experiment sample size:729
Age: 70.8 ± 6.5
(2) Control sample size:716
Age: 70.9 ± 6.8
Telemedicine inventions: remote consultation Nurse case manages; physician HbA1c
LDL
BP
12/24/36/48/60 months HbA1c, BP and LDL levels were improved
Sood et al. [31] (Diabetes)
(1) Experiment sample size:199
Age: 61.6 ± 9.4
(2)Control sample size:83
Age: 61.1 ± 10.0
Telemedicine inventions: Remote consultation A team of a diabetes specialist (endocrinologist) and a nurse practitioner HbA1c
BP
LDL
HDL
18 months HbA1c was no statistically significant
Fountoulakis et al. [26] (Diabetes)
(1) Experiment sample size:70
Age: 55.2 ± 16.1
(2) Control sample size:35
Age: 55.4 ± 19.2
Telemedicine inventions: telemonitoring Outpatient Department Endocrinologists
Doctor
HbA1c
BMI
Cost
3/6/6 months after discontinuation Telemonitoring effective in rapidly reducing HbA1c
Lu et al. [35] (Diabetes)
(1) Experiment sample size:60
Age:56.75 ± 12.05
(2) Control sample size:59
Age: 53.17 ± 11.44
Telemedicine inventions: Internet-based consultation pharmacist HbA1c
FBG
edication
6 months HbA1c and FBG were no statistically significant
Yuli Hu et al. [34] (Diabetes)
(1) Experiment sample size:72
Age:50.04 ± 5.76
(2) Control sample size:70
Age:52.21 ± 8.38
Telemedicine inventions: Internet-based consultation Doctors
Nurses
HbA1c
Urinary albumin to creatinine ratio
Carotid plaque
  The telemedicine system reduced rate of hypoglycemia and indexes of HbA1c
Jia et al. [32] (Hypertension)
(1) Experiment sample size:81
Age: 70.2 ± 6.5
(2) Control sample size:81
Age: 69.2 ± 6.7
Telemedicine inventions: Internet-based consultation Nurse
Doctor
BP 6 months BP was improved
Margolis et al. [37] (Hypertension)
(1) Experiment sample size:228
Age: 62.0 ± 11.7
(2) Control sample size:222
Age: 60.2 ± 12.2
Telemedicine inventions: telemonitoring Pharmacists
Doctor
BP 6/12/18/54 months BP was decreased after 12 months
McManus et al. [33] (Hypertension)
(1)Experiment sample size:234
Age: 66.6 ± 8.8
(2) Control sample size:246
Age: 66.2 ± 8.8
Telemedicine inventions: Telemonitoring Research team; Family doctor BP 6/12 months BP changed significantly after 6 months and 12 months
Richard et al. (Hypertension)
(1) Experiment sample size:269
Age: 65.2 ± 10.3
(2) Control sample size:278
Age: 66.7 ± 10.2
Telemedicine inventions: telemonitoring Healthcare practitioners BP 6/12 months The systolic blood pressure was improved after one year than usual care
Song et al. [29] (Rheumatoid arthritis)
(1) Experiment sample size: 41
(2) Control sample size: 36
Age: 55.26 ± 10.84
Telemedicine inventions: telemonitoring Nurses Medication compliance
Disease activity
3/6 months The intervention group had significantly higher medication adherence
Ferwerda et al. [27] (Rheumatoid arthritis)
(1) Experiment sample size: 62
(2) Control sample size: 71
Age: 56.35 ± 10.00
Telemedicine inventions: internet-based consultation Therapists Beck depression inventory
Negative mood
Anxiety
Satisfaction
3/6/9/12 months Patients with psychological distress have reduced
  1. HbA1c glycosylated hemoglobin; FBG fasting blood glucose; PBG postprandial blood glucose; FPG fasting plasma glucose; HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; BMI Body Mass Index; BP blood pressure; LDL low density lipoprotein; HbA1c glycosylated hemoglobin; HDL high density lipoprotein; SBP systolic blood pressure; DBP diastolic blood pressure