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Table 2 Examples of unsatisfactory cases of the two-layer structure (English terms in parentheses) “Category and preferred term” is a term which change the allocation depending on the terminology item

From: Terminology integration and inconsistency identification of adverse event terminology for Japanese medical devices using SPARQL

  Category term Category and preferred term Preferred term
Medical device problems 電気的不良 (electrical defect) ヒューズ切れ (fuse blown) ヒューズ溶断 (fuse melting)
機器不良 (faulty device) アラーム異常 (alarm abnormality) 異常検知不可 (impossibility of anomaly detection)
不明 (uncertain) 不明 (uncertain) 原因不明 (cause unknown)
故障 (defect) バッテリ不良 (battery problem) 早期放電 (early discharge)
動作不良 (malfunction) バッテリ不良 (battery problem) バッテリ駆動不良 (failure to Run on Battery)
誤穿刺(erroneous puncturing) 誤穿刺(erroneous puncturing) 誤穿刺(erroneous puncturing)
Patient problems アレルギー症状 (allergic symptoms) かゆみ (itching) そう痒感 (pruritus)
機能性障害 (functional disorder) 呼吸不全 (respiratory insufficiency) 動脈血酸素飽和度低下 (falling arterial oxygen saturation degree)
炎症 (inflammation) 痛み (pain) 痛み (sore throat)
炎症症状(inflammatory symptom) 皮膚炎 (dermatitis) 痒み (itching)
損傷 (injury) 外傷 (trauma) 損傷 (injury)
  1. “Category term” is a hypernym when “category and preferred term” is described as preferred term. “Preferred term” is a hyponym when “category and preferred term” is described as category term