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Table 2 Subgroup comparison of 7-day estimated mortality obtained using RL-oxygen algorithm and critical care physician decision guidance

From: Reinforcement learning assisted oxygen therapy for COVID-19 patients under intensive care

Subgroups Estimated mortality (%) Average oxygen (L/min)
RL-oxygen Physician RL-oxygen Physician
Overall 5.37 (0.22) 7.94 (0.27) 19.24 (0.07)* 20.52 (0.07)
Male 6.13 (0.12)* 8.53 (0.14) 21.20 (0.09)* 22.66 (0.09)
Female 2.18 (0.11)* 2.99 (0.12) 6.33 (0.07) 6.41 (0.07)
Age
 50–65 1.19 (0.08)* 1.74 (0.09) 25.54 (0.12)* 22.27 (0.12)
 65–75 4.13 (0.14)* 5.43 (0.16) 19.63 (0.12)* 22.73 (0.12)
 75–80 14.76 (0.3)* 20.39 (0.34) 19.79 (0.14)* 21.45 (0.16)
 ≥ 80 15.86 (0.57)* 21.73 (0.65) 14.28 (0.18)* 18.96 (0.26)
Body mass index (kg/m2)
 < 25 7.74 (0.18)* 11.10 (0.21) 19.27 (0.11)* 20.58 (0.12)
 25–30 7.38 (0.19)* 9.21 (0.21) 23.39 (0.13)* 24.5 (0.14)
 30–35 2.72 (0.15)* 5.30 (0.21) 22.91 (0.16)* 21.42 (0.17)
 ≥ 35 5.35 (0.28)* 5.44 (0.28) 19.53 (0.18)* 22.78 (0.21)
Hyperlipidemia 7.43 (0.13)* 9.47 (0.14) 20.11 (0.09)* 20.94 (0.09)
Coronary artery disease 8.55 (0.18)* 11.39 (0.21) 18.13 (0.12)* 20.04 (0.11)
Heart failure 11.25 (0.23)* 12.59 (0.25) 18.35 (0.11) 18.22 (0.13)
Hypertension 6.96 (0.11)* 8.79 (0.13) 21.2 (0.08) 21.25 (0.08)
Diabetes 7.73 (0.15)* 8.25 (0.15) 25.22 (0.11)* 20.31 (0.1)
Asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary 11.98 (0.32)* 17.67 (0.38) 15.57 (0.15)* 19.68 (0.18)
Dementia 10.71 (0.46)* 15.82 (0.56) 15.57 (0.23)* 14.19 (0.23)
Stroke 9.15 (0.31)* 12.95 (0.37) 21.78 (0.15)* 15.94 (0.19)
  1. Categorical variables are summarized with frequencies (percentages) unless otherwise indicated. Continuous variables are summarized as the mean (standard error) of biomarkers
  2. *Variables indicate RL-oxygen is significantly different from physicians (p-value < 0.001)