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Table 2 Distribution of information feeding sources (IFS) among different subcategories of the road traffic apps

From: Mobile applications for road traffic health and safety in the mirror of the Haddon’s matrix

Type and combination of IFS Definitions and examples Frequency Distribution of IFS among different subcategories of apps
Mobile sensing Collecting and analyzing information are done by mobile sensors such as GPS, gyroscope, accelerometer, Bluetooth, and camera 378 (41%) Accident record and report (3), Alcohol free driving (1), Distraction management (22), Driving/driver behavior based feedbacking (27), Drowsiness management (9), Eco-driving & fuel saving (12), Real-time traffic information/ alerting (16), Ridesharing service (3), Safe driver service (3), Speed camera & police detector (13), Speed limit warning (36), Vehicle operating, fixing and maintenance (2), Mapping & routing (144), Parking (48), Car or fleet tracking and management (5), Remote vehicle control (3), Taking taxi/ car service/ Vehicle renting (30), Transportation for special need (1)
Mobile sensing and earlobe sensor Driver's fatigue and drowsiness symptoms detecting by ear signals alongside mobile sensing 1 (0%) Drowsiness management (1)
OBD adaptor On-Board Diagnostics is a computer-based system designed for monitoring the performance of major engine components. The information captured from the OBD adaptor is sent to the mobile app via the Internet of Things (IoT). Furthermore, the telematics adapter apparatus includes an onboard diagnostics (OBD) port connected to the vehicle for retrieving information about the self-calibrating accelerometer, driver behavior pattern recognition and advanced accident telemetry data (26) 31 (3%) Distraction management (1), Driving/driver behavior based feedbacking (29), Real-time traffic information/ alerting (1),
Mobile sensing and OBD adaptor Both OBD device and mobile sensor used for information collecting and analyzing 26 (3%) Distraction management (2), Driving/driver behavior based feed backing (7), Eco driving & fuel saving (8), Real-time traffic information/ alerting (4), Car or fleet tracking and management (5)
Mobile sensing and community based Traffic information obtained from both mobile sensors and community users. For example drivers share real-time traffic and road information via their smartphones 69 (8%) Driving/driver behavior based feed backing (1), Real-time traffic information/ alerting (54), Speed camera & police detector (6), Speed limit warning (3), Mapping & routing (4), Parking (1)
Mobile sensing and traffic camera Besides mobile sensors, traffic information is obtained from traffic control cameras 115 (13%) Real-time traffic information/ alerting (114), Speed limit warning (1)
Mobile sensing and valid activation code These apps should be provided with a valid activation code from apps official websites that are used in driving/ driver behavior based feed backing and car or fleet tracking and management subcategories 36 (4%) Driving/driver behavior based feed backing (33), Car or fleet tracking and management (3)
Off-line (standalone) These apps are able to operate without control from another system, or company, and don't need an Internet connection or active GPS for function. After launching the app, the user can use app information 256 (28%) Alcohol free driving (5), Drowsiness management (1), Driving performance (knowledge & skills) (97), Traffic rules & road Signs (119), Vehicle operating, fixing and maintenance (22), Insurance & fine (10), Remote vehicle control (2)
Traffic radio Only one app uses traffic radio for information collecting. Traffic Radio 96.1 FM app belongs to Lagos State (Nigeria). The State Government realized the challenges of traffic jams and concluded that heavy traffic congestion on roads should be reduced. Finally a dedicated traffic radio was established to monitor traffic and safety matters in Lagos state 1 (0%) Real-time traffic information/ alerting (1)