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Table 1 Number of garbage-coded deaths (and percentage of all garbage-coded deaths) by ICD revision and method of determining redistribution parameters for cause of death data from 1980 to 2019

From: Public health utility of cause of death data: applying empirical algorithms to improve data quality

Method ICD-9 ICD-10 Total
Multiple cause 18,266,079
(35.1%)
35,096,700
(30.8%)
53,362,779
(32.2%)
Negative correlation 11,711,386
(22.5%)
34,410,369
(30.2%)
46,121,755
(27.8%)
Impairment 209,513
(0.4%)
449,294
(0.4%)
658,807
(0.4%)
Proportional redistribution 21,796,259
(41.9%)
43,851,463
(38.5%)
65,647,722
(39.6%)