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Box 1 Classes of garbage codes

From: Public health utility of cause of death data: applying empirical algorithms to improve data quality

Class 1 includes garbage codes that are attributable to causes within all three Level 1 GBD causes in the GBD cause hierarchy (communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disease (CMNN); non-communicable disease (NCD); injury). For example, “sepsis” or “peritonitis” could be the result of any of the three Level 1 causes, and as such are the least specific class of garbage code and are redistributed across all three cause groupings
Class 2 includes garbage codes that are attributable to causes within a single Level 1 GBD cause in the GBD cause hierarchy, e.g., “unintentional unspecified injuries” and such deaths are all redistributed onto injuries causes
Class 3 includes garbage codes that are attributable to causes within a single Level 2 GBD cause, e.g., “ill-defined cancer site” deaths are all redistributed onto neoplasms
Class 4 includes garbage codes that are attributable to causes within a single Level 3 GBD cause, e.g., “unspecified stroke” deaths will be redistributed to one of ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, or subarachnoid hemorrhage