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Table 2 Definition and examples of the 13 entities used in this study

From: Constructing fine-grained entity recognition corpora based on clinical records of traditional Chinese medicine

Entity typeDefinitionExamples (entities are in bold font)
Ordinary body partThis entity enables us to locate the exact positions of symptoms, medical tests, or disease.痒 (itchiness in the eyes)
Tongue bodyThis is the musculature and vascular tissue of the tongue, also the tongue substance. It is annotated only when followed by a specific description of the tongue’s physical manifestation.红, 苔黄, 脉滑 (red tongue, yellow coating, slippery pulse)
Tongue coatingA layer of moss-like material covering the tongue, also called tongue fur. It is annotated only when followed by the description of tongue coating manifestation.舌红, 黄, 脉滑 (red tongue, yellow coating, slippery pulse)
PulseA radial artery of the wrist, which includes three sections: cun, guan, and chi. The pulse entity is annotated only when it is followed by a description of the pulse condition.舌红, 苔黄, 滑 (red tongue, yellow coating, slippery pulse)
AcupointA point where a needle is inserted and manipulated in acupuncture therapy.肩髃痛 (pain in LI15)
Meridian and collateralA system of conduits through which qi and blood circulate, connecting the bowels, viscera, extremities, superficial organs, and tissues, and making the body an organic whole. These are the same as channels and networks and are also called meridians or channels.左大腿阳明经固定痛 (fixed pain in the stomach channel of the foot-yangming of the left leg)
Zang organAn internal organ in which the essence and qi are formed and stored. These organs include heart, liver, spleen, lungs, and kidneys, and are also called the five viscera.一直服调化湿药 (always take the medicine for regulating the spleen and removing dampness)
Fu organAn internal organ in which food is received, transported, and digested, including the gallbladder, stomach, large intestine, small intestine, urinary bladder, and triple energizers.g They are also called the six bowels. 
Both the tongue body and tongue coatingWords referring to the tongue body and tongue coating.可 (normal tongue)
Tongue body manifestationSpecific description of the tongue body manifestation, including tongue color, shape, and sublingual vein., 苔黄, 脉滑 (red tongue, yellow coating, slippery pulse)
Tongue coating manifestationSpecific tongue coating manifestation, including color, thickness, and texture.舌红, 苔, 脉滑 (red tongue, yellow coating, slippery pulse)
Pulse conditionSpecific description of arterial pulsation in TCM when the pulse is felt during examination.舌红, 苔黄, 脉 (red tongue, yellow coating, slippery pulse)
Direction and positionDescription of the direction and position, which enables us to know the specific location of the body part.膝关节疼痛 (pain in the left knee joint)
  1. gIn TCM, the Fu organ, or “triple energizers,” is a collective term for the three portions of the body cavity through which the visceral qi is transformed. This organ is also widely known as the “triple burners.” It contains the upper energizer, middle energizer, and lower energizer. It is also called the “solitary hollow organ,” because there is no paired relationship between the viscera and the “triple energizers”