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Table 1 Context of HIE use by specialist physicians (SPs) for laboratory medicine

From: Advancing laboratory medicine in hospitals through health information exchange: a survey of specialist physicians in Canada

Characteristics of the SPs (user context)All specialist physiciansiEHRa usersiEHR non-usersChi-squared statistic
(N = 566) freq. (%)(n = 451) freq. (%)(n = 115) freq. (%)
Gender
 Female278 (49.1)221 (49.0)57 (49.6)0.0
 Male288 (50.9)230 (51.0)58 (50.4)
Age
 29 years old or less7 (1.2)6 (1.3)1 (0.9)5.6
 30–49 years old317 (56.0)256 (56.8)61 (53.1)
 50–59 years old137 (24.2)101 (22.4)36 (31.3)
 60 years old or more105 (18.6)88 (19.5)17 (14.8)
Clinical experience
 5 years or less85 (15.0)72 (16.0)13 (11.3)5.9
 5–9 years107 (18.9)85 (18.8)22 (19.1)
 10–24 years196 (34.6)156 (34.6)40 (34.8)
 25 years or more178 (31.4)138 (30.6)40 (34.8)
Characteristics of the SPs’ hospital facility (organizational context)All specialist physiciansiEHRa usersiEHR non-usersChi-squared statistic
(N = 566) freq. (%)(n = 451) freq. (%)(n = 115) freq. (%)
Size of the hospital
 1-49specialist physicians110 (19.4)84 (18.6)26 (22.6)1.1
 50–149 specialist physicians139 (24.6)111 (24.6)28 (24.3)
 150–299 specialist physicians170 (30.0)136 (30.2)34 (29.6)
 300–1500 specialist physicians147 (26.0)12 (26.6)27 (23.5)
Location of the hospital
 Urban region395 (69.8)340 (75.4)55 (47.8)33.0***
 Rural region171 (30.2)111 (24.6)60 (52.2)
HIE systems used by the SPs for laboratory medicine (IT artefactual context)All specialist physiciansiEHRa usersiEHR non-usersChi-squared statistic
(N = 566) freq. (%)(n = 451) freq. (%)(n = 115) freq. (%)
Laboratory Results Viewerb
 LRV non-user42 (7.4)42 (9.3)0 (0.0)11.6***
 LRV user524 (92.6)409 (90.7)115 (100)
  1. aQuebec Health Record
  2. bFor viewing lab results provided by a LIS, a CIS, and/or a regional HIE platform
  3. * | *** The χ2 value indicates a significant difference (p < 0.05 | p < 0.001) between iEHR users and non-users