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Fig. 1 | BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making

Fig. 1

From: FHIR PIT: an open software application for spatiotemporal integration of clinical data and environmental exposures data

Fig. 1

An overview of the integration steps embedded in the FHIR PIT software application pipeline. API = application programming interface; FHIR = Health Level 7 Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources; ICEES = Integrated Clinical and Environmental Exposures Service; UI = user interface; US Census ACS = US Census Bureau’s American Community Survey; US Census Bureau TIGER = US Census Bureau’s Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing system; US EPA conUS CMAQ = US Environmental Protection Agency’s conUS Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling data; US DOT FHWA HPMS = US Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Highway Patrol Monitoring System. Red color = sensitive, fully identified clinical data; dark blue color = public data on environmental exposures; light blue color = secure, firewall- and Institutional Review Board–protected integration steps; dark green color = de-identified, binned integrated feature tables; light green color = ICEES OpenAPI. (Note that data from the National Center for Education Statistics have not yet been integrated using FHIR PIT, but an approach is under development to integrate data on school exposures with home exposures data and clinical data, thereby addressing issues related to patient mobility and differential exposures. A simplified version of the FHIR PIT pipeline was published in JAMIA 2019;26(1):1064–1073 and is reprinted in adapted form here with full permission from the publisher. In contrast to the simplified version of the FHIR PIT pipeline, the version shown here includes and clearly distinguishes all of the data sources and integration steps that are assembled by the current version of the pipeline.)

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