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Table 3 Overlapping entities between labelled benchmark ASD terms and CLAMP predictions

From: Natural language processing (NLP) tools in extracting biomedical concepts from research articles: a case study on autism spectrum disorder

True entity Predicted entity Sentence Full-text PubMed article
Speech and language delay Severe speech and language delay Patient 290,951 had a clinical diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder, behavioral difficulties, and severe speech and language delay PMC5798319
Trains A preoccupation with trains Mr Parsons has a narrow range of specialist interests, including a preoccupation with trains, and also experiences a high degree of sensory sensitivity PMC6394789
Limited eye contact Poor and limited eye We observed poor and limited eye contact in reciprocal social interactions during the ADOS examination PMC5282903
Body rocking Repeated incidents of body rocking A case study with six children on the spectrum was conducted to observe repeated incidents of body rocking, hand flapping, and/or simultaneous body rocking and hand flapping PMC5298619
Body rocking Simultaneous body rocking A case study with six children on the spectrum was conducted to observe repeated incidents of body rocking, hand flapping, and/or simultaneous body rocking and hand flapping PMC5298619
Limited speech Very limited speech output Because these children had very limited speech output prior to treatment, the acquisition of speech sounds through AMMT is an important gain that provides a foundation for subsequent speech therapy PMC3183050
Initiating social interactions Difficulty initiating social interactions Has difficulty initiating social interactions and demonstrates clear examples of atypical or unsuccessful responses to social overtures of others PMC6055683
Trains Toy trains Toy trains appeared to be one of the most familiar and interesting toy for both ASD and TD children in the age range considered and was chosen as the non-social reward image PMC5468258
Head banging Unexpected head banging Pitching into others with the head (violent and unexpected head banging, head against other's chest) PMC3006199
  1. The true entity represents the term from the benchmark set of ASD terms. These examples were chosen to illustrate how CLAMP’s predictions can take into account the context surrounding the benchmark terms, expanding the benchmark vocabulary. The entity predicted by CLAMP is italicized in the sentence