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Table 2 Types of Symbiotic Interactions

From: A realism-based approach to an ontological representation of symbiotic interactions

Term Definition
agonism An ectosymbiosis that results in harm to one of the participating organisms and benefit to another participating organism
intimate agonism An agonism where the participating organisms, although physically external to one another, nevertheless have close and persistent physical contact for most or all of the interaction
ectosymbiotic parasitism An intimate agonism in which the harm is not fatal to the host
ectosymbiotic parasitoidism An intimate agonism in which the harm is fatal to the host
transient agonism An agonism where the participating organisms maintain significant physical separation from one another through most or all of the interaction
grazing A transient agonism in which the harm is not fatal
predation A transient agonism in which the harm is fatal
amensalism An ectosymbiosis that results in harm to one of the participating organisms but neither harms nor benefits the other participating organisms
antagonism An ectosymbiosis that results in harm to all participating organisms
ectosymbiotic commensalism An ectosymbiosis that results in benefit to one participating organism and neither harm nor benefit to the other participating organisms
ectosymbiotic mutualism An ectosymbiosis that results in benefit to all participating organisms
endosymbiotic parasitism An endosymbiosis that results in benefit to the parasite and harm to the host
endosymbiotic parasitoidism An endosymbiosis that results in benefit to the parasitoid and death to the host
endosymbiotic commensalism An endosymbiosis that results in benefit to one organism and neither harm nor benefit to the other participating organisms
endosymbiotic mutualism An endosymbiosis that results in benefit to all participating organisms
obligatory ectosymbiotic parasitism An ectosymbiotic parasitism that realizes a biological function that inheres in some proper part of the parasite
obligatory ectosymbiotic parasitoidism An ectosymbiotic parasitoidism that realizes a biological function that inheres in some proper part of the parasitoid
obligatory ectosymbiotic commensalism An ectosymbiotic commensalism that realizes a biological function that inheres in some proper part of the commensal organism that benefits
obligatory ectosymbiotic mutualism An ectosymbiotic mutualism that realizes a biological function that inheres in some proper part of at least one of the organisms participating
obligatory endosymbiotic parasitism An endosymbiotic parasitism that realizes a biological function that inheres in some proper part of the parasite
obligatory endosymbiotic parasitoidism An endosymbiotic parasitoidism that realizes a biological function that inheres in some proper part of the parasitoid
obligatory endosymbiotic commensalism An endosymbiotic commensalism that realizes a biological function that inheres in some proper part of the commensal organism that benefits
obligatory endosymbiotic mutualism An endosymbiotic mutualism that realizes a biological function that inheres in some proper part of at least one of the organisms participating
facultative ectosymbiotic parasitism An ectosymbiotic parasitism that realizes some facultative parasite role inhering in an organism that is also realized by a bodily benefit to that organism
facultative ectosymbiotic parasitoidism An ectosymbiotic parasitoidism that realizes some facultative parasitoid role inhering in an organism that is also realized by a bodily benefit to that organism
facultative ectosymbiotic commensalism An ectosymbiotic commensalism that realizes some facultative commensal role inhering in an organism that is also realized by a bodily benefit to that organism
facultative ectosymbiotic mutualism An ectosymbiotic mutualism that realizes some facultative mutualist role inhering in an organism that is also realized by a bodily benefit to that organism
facultative endosymbiotic parasitism An endosymbiotic parasitism that realizes some facultative parasite role inhering in an organism that is also realized by a bodily benefit to that organism
facultative endosymbiotic parasitoidism An endosymbiotic parasitoidism that realizes some facultative parasitoid role inhering in an organism that is also realized by a bodily benefit to that organism
facultative endosymbiotic commensalism An endosymbiotic commensalism that realizes some facultative commensal role inhering in an organism that is also realized by a bodily benefit to that organism
facultative endosymbiotic mutualism An endosymbiotic mutualism that realizes some facultative mutualist role inhering in an organism that is also realized by a bodily benefit to that organism