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Table 4 Healthcare managers’ actions related to technostress, explored using critical incident technique

From: Healthcare managers’ experiences of technostress and the actions they take to handle it – a critical incident analysis

Main areas Categories Subcategory (number of actions)
Culture, norms and social support Good email culture Efficient digital communication management (12 actions)
   Meetings instead of emails (8 actions)
   Communication about digital communication with co-workers (15 actions)
  Co-worker support Situation-based co-worker support (8 actions)
   Reliance on co-worker’s digital literacy (7 actions)
   Supporting each other during system failure (5 actions)
Individual resources Individual strategies Routine and structure (16 actions)
   Flexible in replying to digital communication (13 actions)
   Using digital solutions (8 actions)
   Using separate digital device for work and private life (6 actions)
  Individual competence Digital literacy (10 actions)
   Learning by doing (14 actions)
   Preparation (12 actions)
   Improvisation (9 actions)
   Confident attitude (7 actions)
Organisational resources Support and assistance Good IT support (18 actions)
   Back-up routines (8 actions)
   Administrative support (20 actions)