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Table 3 Healthcare managers’ experiences of technostress, explored by critical incident technique

From: Healthcare managers’ experiences of technostress and the actions they take to handle it – a critical incident analysis

Main areas Categories Subcategory (number of incidents)
Negative aspects of Digital communication High workload High number of digital messages (39 incidents)
Redundant digital messages (18 incidents)
  Demands for rapid replies to digital messages (13 incidents)
Invasion of private life Limitless digital communication management (11 incidents)
  Distressing messages after working hours (5 incidents)
Negative feelings Fear of missed information in the inbox (11 incidents)
  Misunderstandings or frustration in digital communication (6 incidents)
Poor user experience Time consuming ICT systems Illogical ICT systems (15 incidents)
  Sequence-ordered ICT systems (5 incidents)
  Login frustration (12 incidents)
  Slow response time of ICT (6 incidents)
Malfunctioning/disturbing ICT systems Technical struggle (22 incidents)
  Disturbances from notifications (12 incidents)
  Updates that require action (8 incidents)
Needs to improve organisational resources Facilitating digital literacy Lack of general digital literacy (10 incidents)
  Lack of literacy in ICT systems used irregularly (9 incidents)
  Need for practical training in ICT (14 incidents)
Facilitating user influence Need for increased user influence (12 incidents)
  Need for increased terminology fit between ICT systems and healthcare (10 incidents)
  Need for increased use of new digital solutions (7 incidents)
Redistribution of work and ICT systems Need for increased administrative support (17 incidents)
  Need for redistribution of ICT systems (12 incidents)
  Need for strengthened back-up routines for system breakdowns (5 incidents)