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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies (n = 181)

From: Definitions, components and processes of data harmonisation in healthcare: a scoping review

Study name Date Type of study Intervention term Country Level of the health care system
Commentary
Burris 2017 Commentary HIE USA Frontline: hospitals
Figge 2010 Commentary HIE USA Management
McIlwain 2009 Commentary HIE USA Management
Murphy 2010 Commentary HIE USA Management
Overhage 2007 Commentary HIE USA Management
Rudin 2010 Commentary HIE USA Frontline: workers
Conceptual
Boyd 2014 Conceptual RL Australia Research
Carr 2013 Conceptual HIE USA Frontline: hospitals
Cimino 2014 Conceptual HIE USA Management
Deas 2012 Conceptual HIE USA Management
Del Fiol 2015 Conceptual HIE USA Frontline: prisons, hospitals
Dimitropoulos 2009 Conceptual HIE USA Management
Downs 2010 Conceptual HIE USA Management
Feldman 2017 Conceptual HIE USA Management
Frisse 2010 Conceptual HIE USA Frontline: patients, workers
Frisse 2008 Conceptual HIE USA Frontline: organisations
Frohlich 2007 Conceptual HIE USA Management
Godlove 2015 Conceptual HIE USA Frontline: patients
Greene 2016 Conceptual HIE USA Management
Grossman 2008 Conceptual HIE USA Management
Haarbrandt 2016 Conceptual DW USA Management
Hu 2007 Conceptual DS USA Management
Jones 2012 Conceptual DS USA Management
Kuperman 2013 Conceptual HIE USA Management
Langabeer 2016 Conceptual HIE USA Management
Liu 2011 Conceptual HIE China Management
McDonald 2009 Conceptual HIE USA Management
McMurray 2015 Conceptual HIE USA Management
Miller 2014 Conceptual HIE USA Frontline: hospitals
Nelson 2016 Conceptual HIE USA Frontline: prisons, hospitals
Politi 2014 Conceptual HIE n/a Management
Ranade-Kharkar 2014 Conceptual HIE USA Management
Shapiro 2016 Conceptual HIE USA Frontline: workers, organisations
Shapiro 2006 Conceptual HIE USA Management
Thorn 2013 Conceptual HIE USA Frontline: health care workers
Thorn 2014 Conceptual HIE USA Frontline: health care workers
Vest 2010 Conceptual HIE USA Management
Williams 2012 Conceptual HIE USA Management
Yaraghi 2014 Conceptual HIE USA Management
Zafar 2007 Conceptual HIE USA Management
Zaidan 2015 Conceptual HIE Malaysia Management
Primary studies
Abramson 2012 Primary, quantitative EHR, HIE USA Frontline, hospitals
Adjerid 2011 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Management, states
Adler-Milstein 2011 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: organisations
Adler-Milstein 2013 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Management, organisations
Adler-Milstein 2016 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Management
Alexander 2016 Primary, qualitative HIE USA Frontline, health care workers
Alexander 2015 Primary, qualitative HIE USA Frontline, health care workers
Ancker 2012 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline, consumers
Bahous 2016 Primary, quantitative HIE Israel Frontline, hospital
Bailey 2013 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: hospital
Ben-Assuli 2013 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: hospitals
Boockvar 2017 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: hospital
Butler 2014 Primary, qualitative HIE USA Frontline: prisons, communities
Campion 2012 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: health care workers
Campion 2013 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: communities
Campion 2013 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: clinics, hospitals
Campion 2014 Primary, quantitative DE USA Frontline: organisations
Carr 2014 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: hospitals
Carr 2016 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: hospitals
Cochran 2015 Primary, qualitative HIE USA Frontline: clinics, communities
Cross 2016 Primary, qualitative HIE USA Management, organisations
Dalan 2010 Primary, qualitative DM USA Research
Dimitropoulos 2011 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: consumers
Dixon 2013 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: hospitals
Dixon 2011 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: laboratories
Downing 2017 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Management: policy
Dullabh 2013 Primary, qualitative HIE USA Management: organisations
Elysee 2017 Primary, quantitative HIE, IO USA Frontline: hospitals
Foldy 2007 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Management: organisations
Fontaine 2010 Primary, qualitative HIE USA Frontline: primary health care
French 2016 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Management: organisations
Fricton 2008 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: patients, workers
Frisse 2012 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: organisations
Furukawa 2013 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: hospitals
Furukawa 2014 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: health care workers
Gadd 2011 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: health care workers
Garg 2014 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: hospitals
Gill 2001 Primary, quantitative DL South Africa Frontline: patients, disease
Grinspan 2013 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: patients
Grinspan 2014 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: health care workers
Grinspan 2015 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: patients
Hassol 2014 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: health care workers
Herwehe 2012 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: health care workers
Hincapie 2011 Primary, qualitative HIE USA Frontline: health care workers
Holman 2008 Primary, quantitative DL USA Frontline: organisations, research
Hypponen 2014 Primary, quantitative HIE Finland Frontline: health care workers
Ji 2017 Primary, quantitative HIE Korea Frontline: hospitals
Johnson 2011 Primary, mixed HIE USA Frontline: hospitals
Jung 2015 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: hospitals
Kaelber 2013 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: hospitals
Kierkegaard 2014 Primary, qualitative HIE USA Frontline: health care workers
Kierkegaard 2014 Primary, qualitative HIE USA Management
Kim 2012 Primary, qualitative HIE Korea Management
Knaup 2006 Primary. quantitative DS Germany Frontline: hospitals
Kralewski 2012 Primary, qualitative CIE USA Frontline: organisations, workers
Laborde 2011 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: hospitals
Lee 2012 Primary, quantitative HIE South Korea Frontline: health care workers
Li 2011 Primary, quantitative DE Japan & China Frontline: organisations
Liu 2010 Primary, qualitative DH China Management
Lobach 2007 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Management
Maenpaa 2011 Primary, quantitative HIE Finland Frontline: hospital
Maiorana 2012 Primary, mixed HIE USA Frontline: workers, disease
Martinez 2015 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: hospitals
Massoudi 2016 Primary, qualitative HIE USA Frontline: organisations
Mastebroek 2017 Primary, qualitative HIE Netherlands Frontline: patients
Mastebroek 2017 Primary, qualitative HIE Netherlands Frontline: patients
Mastebroek 2016 Primary, quantitative HIE Netherlands Frontline: health care workers
Matsumoto 2017 Primary, qualitative HIE USA Frontline: workers, hospitals
Medford-Davis 2017 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: patients, hospitals
Mello 2018 Primary, qualitative HIE USA Management: policies
Merrill 2013 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: managers
Messer 2012 Primary, mixed HIE USA Frontline: clinics, organisations
Miller 2012 Primary, qualitative HIE USA Frontline: consumers, organisations
Miller 2017 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: disease, workers
Moore 2012 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: workers, hospitals
Motulsky 2018 Primary, quantitative HIE Canada Frontline: workers
Myers 2012 Primary, qualitative HIE USA Frontline: disease, workers
Obeidat 2014 Primary, quantitative IE Jordan Frontline: hospitals
O’Donnell 2011 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: workers
Onyile 2013 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: patients
Opoku-Agyeman 2016 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: hospitals
Overhage 2017 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Management
Ozkaynak 2013 Primary, qualitative HIE USA Frontline: hospitals, workers
Park 2015 Primary, quantitative HIE South Korea Frontline: clinics, hospitals
Park 2013 Primary, quantitative HIE South Korea Frontline: clinics, hospitals
Patel 2011 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: clinics, hospitals
Politi 2015 Primary, quantitative HIE Israel Frontline: hospital
Ramos 2016 Primary, mixed HIE USA Frontline: patients
Ramos 2014 Primary, qualitative HIE USA Frontline: patients
Reis 2016 Primary, quantitative HDE USA Frontline: hospital
Richardson 2014 Primary, qualitative HIE USA Frontline: organisations, workers
Ross 2010 Primary, qualitative HIE USA Frontline: clinics
Ross 2013 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: workers, clinics, hospitals
Rudin 2009 Primary, qualitative HIE USA Frontline: health care workers
Rundall 2016 Primary, qualitative HIE USA Management: policy makers, leaders
Saef 2014 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: hospitals
Santos 2017 Primary, quantitative HIE Brazil Frontline: clinics, hospitals
Shade 2012 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: clinics, hospitals
Shank 2012 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: health care workers
Shapiro 2013 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: hospitals
Shapiro 2007 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: health care workers
Sicotte 2010 Primary, qualitative HIE Canada Frontline: workers, hospitals
Sprivulis 2007 Primary, quantitative HIE Australia Frontline: workers, organisations
Squire 2002 Primary, mixed HIE USA Frontline: health care workers
Sridhar 2012 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: hospital
Thornewill 2011 Primary, mixed HIE USA Frontline: consumers, organisations
Unertl 2012 Primary, qualitative HIE USA Frontline: clinics, hospitals
Vest 2010 Primary, qualitative HIE USA Frontline: hospitals
Vest 2017 Primary, qualitative HIE USA Frontline: consumers, organisations
Vest 2015 Primary, qualitative HIE USA Frontline: consumers, organisations
Vest 2013 Primary, qualitative HIE USA Management: policy makers
Vest 2009 Primary, quantitative HIE   Frontline: workers, patients
Vest 2017 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: consumers, organisations
Vest 2011 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: patients, hospitals
Vest 2014 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: patients, hospitals
Vest 2014 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: hospitals
Vest 2015 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: hospitals
Vreeman 2008 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: laboratory, radiology
Wen 2010 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: patients
Winden 2014 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: clinical care
Wright 2010 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: health care workers
Yeager 2014 Primary, qualitative HIE USA Frontline: consumers
Yeaman 2015 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: hospital
Zech 2015 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: patients, organisations
Zech 2016 Primary, quantitative HIE USA Frontline: patients, organisations
Zhu 2010 Primary quantitative HIE USA Research
Study protocol
Dixon 2013 Protocol, mixed HIE USA Frontline: organisations
Reviews
Esmaeilzadeh 2016 Review HIE n/a Management: policy
Esmaeilzadeh 2017 Review HIE n/a Frontline: patients
Fontaine 2010 Review HIE n/a Frontline: primary health care
Hopf 2014 Review DL n/a Frontline: health care workers
Kash 2017 Review HIE n/a Frontline: hospitals
Mastebroek 2014 Review HIE USA Frontline: disease, workers
Parker 2016 Review HIE USA Research
Rahurkar 2015 Review HIE n/a Frontline: hospital
Rudin 2014 Review HIE USA Frontline: clinical care
Sadoughi 2018 Review HIE n/a Management
Vest 2012 Review HIE n/a Management
Dixon 2010 Review HIE USA Research
Akhlaq 2016 Review HIE LMICs Management, countries