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Table 2 Univariate analysis of home-monitoring parameters in the domains; (a) Spirometry, (b) activity, (c) sleep, (d) medication use, (e) heart rate and respiratory rate. Data are shown as mean ± SD or median (IQR)

From: WEARCON: wearable home monitoring in children with asthma reveals a strong association with hospital based assessment of asthma control

a) Spirometry Uncontrolled Controlled Non-asthmatic P-value
(ANOVA / Kruskal-Wallis)
Pre-exercise FEV1 (% predicted) 82.2 ± 16.0 86.1 ± 8.9 98.0 ± 9.5 a,b < 0.01 *
Pre-exercise FEF25–75 (% predicted) 66.9 ± 20.9 75.3 ± 17.7 90.0 ± 20.5 a,b < 0.01 *
Pre-exercise PEF (% predicted) 77.4 ± 22.2 81.7 ± 14.4 98.1 ± 18.2 a,b < 0.01 *
Variation pre-exercise FEV1 (% predicted) 18.0 ± 10.3 9.4 ± 5.4 b 7.6 ± 4.3 b < 0.01 *
FEV1 change after exercise (%) − 11.5 ± 11.9 −0.6 ± 7.6 b −1.6 ± 3.7 b < 0.01 *
FEV1 change during symptoms (%) −30.2 ± 21.4 −6.1 ± 8.1 b < 0.01 *
b) Activity Uncontrolled Controlled Non-asthmatic P-value
(ANOVA / Kruskal-Wallis)
Sedentary activity (min/day) 568 ± 97 566 ± 90 573 ± 89 0.97 *
Light activity (min/day) 270 ± 50 274 ± 51 270 ± 47 0.92 *
Moderate activity (min/day) 97 ± 35 88 ± 33 92 ± 30 0.65 *
Vigorous activity (min/day) 7.4 ± 8.5 6.0 ± 7.9 9.4 ± 9.2 0.95 *
Activity length (seconds) 22.7 ± 2.3 21.9 ± 2.4 22.5 ± 2.3 0.39 *
Scale parameter (a.u.) 12.9 ± 1.9 12.2 ± 1.9 12.7 ± 1.8 0.33 *
c) Sleep Uncontrolled Controlled Non-asthmatic P-value
(ANOVA / Kruskal-Wallis)
Wake-up-time (h:min) 6:28 (6:17–6:59) 7:18 (7:00–7:34) b 7:01 (6:45–7:20) < 0.01 ^
Awake minutes per night (min) 59.9 ± 19.9 51.6 ± 16.5 53.1 ± 17.5 0.19 *
Time per awakening (min) 2.66 ± 0.82 2.40 ± 0.87 2.36 ± 0.53 b 0.06 *
Sleep efficiency (%) 89.0 ± 3.8 91.2 ± 5.0 90.4 ± 3.0 0.23 *
Total sleep time per night (min) 496 ± 62 514 ± 81 498 ± 54 0.60 *
Sleep restlessness before wake-up (counts) 3.37 (2.56–4.87) 2.79 (1.91–4.12) 2.76 (2.48–3.18) b 0.07 ^
d) Medication use Uncontrolled Controlled Non-asthmatic P-value
(ANOVA / Kruskal-Wallis)
Reliever use (n.o.u.) 16.5 (1–34) 3 (0–5) b 0.04 ^
Reliever use after activity (n.o.u.) 0.5 (0–5.5) 0 (0–0) b < 0.01 ^
Reliever use before activity (n.o.u.) 0 (0–5) 0 (0–0) b < 0.01 ^
Controller adherence (% of prescribed) 81.1 ± 30.9 92.7 ± 19.1 0.24 *
e) Heart rate & respiratory rate Uncontrolled Controlled Non-asthmatic P-value
(ANOVA / Kruskal-Wallis)
Daytime heartrate (beats/min) 101 ± 17 97 ± 16 102 ± 10 0.08 *
Daytime respiratory rate (breaths/min) 19.7 ± 2.9 18.5 ± 2.2 19.3 ± 2.0 0.16 *
Nighttime heartrate (beats/min) 79 ± 16 72 ± 14 71 ± 9 0.36 *
Nighttime respiratory rate (breaths/min) 17.5 ± 2.6 15.6 ± 1.6 b 15.2 ± 2.2 b < 0.01 *
Heart rate recovery time (seconds) 54.4 (36.2–111.5) 27.5 (22.0–51.5) b 29.0 (20.2–35.1) b < 0.01 ^
Respiratory rate recovery time (seconds) 60.7 (35.8–101.3) 23.1 (15.7–30.5) b 16.2 (11.1–20.3) b < 0.01 ^
  1. Abbreviations: FEV1 Forced expiratory volume in 1 s, FEF25–75 Forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of the expiratory volume, PEF Peak expiratory flow, n.o.u. Number of use, min Minute, h Hour, a.u. Arbitrary unit
  2. aP < =0.05 compared to controlled asthma
  3. bP < =0.05 compared to uncontrolled asthma
  4. *Normally distributed (ANOVA)
  5. ^ Not normally distributed and/or inhomogeneity of variances (Kruskal-Wallis)