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Table 1 Key features of PGx-CDS display design

From: Utilizing a user-centered approach to develop and assess pharmacogenomic clinical decision support for thiopurine methyltransferase

Subsequent design decision Human factors principle(s) applied or Interview results
1. Important information is presented on a single screen Hazard control hierarchy [26, 27]
2. Action buttons are color coded
Blue for “Accept” button, red for “Override” button
Visual Cue [28]
3. Risk bar visualization indicates the danger of mutation
Red for homozygous mutation, orange for heterozygous mutation
The risk is categorized into high, moderate, low
Attention switch [29, 30]
4. Information is grouped into categories Decision-making alignment
Chunking [31]
Three main criteria are: genotype result, dosing adjustment recommendation from references, and new medication order recommended
5. Recommendation(s) from the PGx-CDS is positioned so physicians can visually compare it to their current medication order Proximity compatibility principle [32]
Minimize user memory load [33]
6. Additional information (e.g., lab values, references, calculations, immunization such as flu shot, TB) and contact information) are presented as supplemental information (via clickable buttons) to avoid information overload Minimize user memory load [33]
Flexibility for user control of data display [33]
Interview results: PGx-CDS Content
Examples from the interviews:
Less is more,
“One of the biggest things to know is the ANC [absolute neutrophil count], the platelet… so you can [evaluate the new order recommended]”
“[Information from referencces] was condensed, it could be more helpful if you could turn things [certain lab values, calculations] off.”
7. Supplemental information (e.g. calculation, lab values) can be view simultaneously with the main information Minimize user memory load [33]
8. Physicians can choose between two options for reviewing reference sources: 1) access information online or 2) send references to their own, individual email Flexibility [33]
Interview results: PGx-CDS content
Example: “It would be nice to have [two options for reviewing reference sources] because most clinicians are not going to have time to read it right there