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Table 1 Comparison of background characteristics between the propensity score matched users and non-users of Aponjon services

From: Does mHealth voice messaging work for improving knowledge and practice of maternal and newborn healthcare?

Characteristics Mothers of infants ≤6 months of age Mothers of infants > 6 to12 months of age
Number of users (%) Number of non users (%) p-value Number of users (%) Number of non users (%) p-value
Study areas
 Bhasantek slum in Dhaka 2 (0.8%) 4 (1.1%) 0.48 4 (1.2%) 4 (0.9%) 0.18
 Urban Brahmanbaria 33 (13.6%) 67 (18.2%) 40 (12.1%) 80 (17.6%)
 Rural Brahmanbaria 201 (82.7%) 287 (77.8%) 283 (85.2%) 362 (79.7%)
 Matlab field site of icddr,b 7 (2.9%) 11 (2.9%) 5 (1.5%) 8 (1.8%)
Mother’s age
  < 19 years 35 (14.4%) 57 (15.5%) 0.98 41 (12.4%) 65 (14.3%) 0.63
 20–24 years 84 (34.6%) 125 (33.9%) 122 (36.8%) 169 (37.2%)
 25–29 years 73 (30.0%) 113 (30.6%) 108 (32.5%) 130 (28.6%)
 30 years and above 51 (21.0%) 74 (20.1%) 61 (18.4%) 90 (19.8%)
Mother’s education
 Incomplete primary 35 (14.4%) 55 (14.9%) 0.98 40 (12.1%) 64 (14.1%) 0.55
 Primary 69 (28.4%) 109 (29.5%) 105 (31.6%) 153 (33.7%)
 Secondary 86 (35.4%) 128 (34.7%) 113 (34.0%) 152 (33.5%)
 Higher 53 (21.8%) 77 (20.9%) 74 (22.3%) 85 (18.7%)
Father’s education
 Incomplete primary 62 (25.5%) 103 (27.9%) 0.89 71 (21.4%) 96 (21.2%) 0.99
 Primary 54 (22.2%) 75 (20.3%) 105 (31.6%) 149 (32.8%)
 Secondary 75 (30.9%) 111 (30.1%) 79 (23.8%) 105 (23.1%)
 Higher 52 (21.4%) 80 (21.7%) 77 (23.2%) 104 (22.9%)
Household asset quintiles
 Lowest 26 (10.7%) 39 (10.6%) 0.56 26 (7.8%) 46 (10.1%) 0.48
 Second 42 (17.3%) 68 (18.4%) 65 (19.6%) 87 (19.2%)
 Middle 49 (20.2%) 93 (25.2%) 69 (20.8%) 87 (19.2%)
 Fourth 58 (23.9%) 82 (22.2%) 83 (25.0%) 130 (28.6%)
 Highest 68 (27.9%) 87 (23.6%) 89 (26.8%) 104 (22.9%)
Ownership of mobile phone
 Used others’ phone 74 (30.5%) 141 (38.2%) 0.05 81 (24.4%) 173 (38.1%) 0.00
 Had own phone 169 (69.6%) 228 (61.8%) 251 (75.6%) 281 (61.9%)
Exposure to mass media
 No exposure 76 (31.3%) 126 (34.15%) 0.65 100 (30.1%) 162 (35.7%) 0.26
 Exposure to 1 form of media 133 (54.7%) 199 (53.9%) 187 (56.3%) 234 (51.5%)
 Exposure to ≥2 forms of media 34 (13.9%) 44 (11.9%) 45 (13.6%) 58 (12.8%)