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Fig. 1 | BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making

Fig. 1

From: Expenditure variations analysis using residuals for identifying high health care utilizers in a state Medicaid program

Fig. 1

Quantile-to-quantile plot (Q-Q plot) of standard normal distribution and residuals obtained from the linear regression model for year 2014. In the left panel, the dependent variable, per-member per-month expenditures, is not transformed. Due to its strong skewness, the residuals significantly deviate from normal distribution. In the right panel, we log-transform the dependent variable with base 10 and re-run the model. The residuals distribution better fits a normal distribution. The right and left ends are heavy-tailed, indicating over/under utilization

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