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Table 6 F1 scores of higher-order CRF models and pi-CRF for each corpora. The first value (‘whole instance’) is F1 score with whole test set and the second value (‘distanced instance’) is F1 score evaluated only with instanced having transition dependency between NEs. (bold: best performance, shaded: pi-CRF)

From: Precursor-induced conditional random fields: connecting separate entities by induction for improved clinical named entity recognition

Feature Models i2b2 2012 SNUH CoNLL 2003
   whole instance distanced instance whole instance distanced instance whole instance distanced instance
Set 1 2nd-order CRF 69.46 70.88 73.43 72.21 58.34 54.52
semi-Markov CRF 67.87 68.91 73.44 71.61 37.31 34.13
high-order CRF 68.38 69.52 73.50 71.69 36.97 33.87
pi-CRF 67.29 68.43 75.50 74.43 45.54 43.41
Set 2 2nd-order CRF 70.99 72.31 74.31 73.27 73.21 72.26
semi-Markov CRF 72.19 73.54 76.01 74.87 63.19 63.32
high-order CRF 71.50 72.74 76.11 74.97 63.56 63.76
pi-CRF 72.30 73.61 76.20 75.47 69.61 72.31
Set 3 2nd-order CRF 71.75 73.01 75.17 74.05 83.13 83.96
semi-Markov CRF 69.30 70.73 76.70 75.79 82.47 83.29
high-order CRF 69.26 70.64 76.73 75.91 82.18 82.80
pi-CRF 72.58 74.04 76.28 75.45 82.08 82.76