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Table 1 Usability issues identified in the first design iteration’s usability testing focus group

From: ALOHA: developing an interactive graph-based visualization for dietary supplement knowledge graph through user-centered design

Theme Usability Issue Heuristic Number of participants reporting the issue (n = 9)
Incomplete functionality Some weird characters, unreadable Unicode characters Reduce uncertainty 1/9
There are two across signs work the same way, one of them should be modified Reduce uncertainty 1/9
Two graphs in the same page separate too far away Reduce uncertainty 1/9
Can not read the full text content of some questions Reduce uncertainty 1/9
Can not read the full name on the circles Reduce uncertainty 1/9
Lack of functionality Users can not hide information after they have looked at them Include in the displays only that information needed by the user at a given time 1/9
Users can not remember the question they asked Reduce uncertainty 2/9
Don’t know how to start to use the system Reduce uncertainty 2/9
Expect more information when hovering on nodes Practice judicious redundancy 1/9
No alert message for error or null value Reduce uncertainty 2/9
Questions should be able to start from everywhere (products, ingredient, etc.) Provide multiple coding of data when appropriate 1/9
Users need go through every circle to figure out the anwser of a question Group data in consistently meaningful ways 1/9
URL is fixed, users can not return to the previous page Automate unwanted workload 1/9
Lack of information No sufficient information for some relationships(like “effects_on”, need more details) Provide multiple coding of data when appropriate 1/9
Unclear information presentation Links overlap and relationships are hard to be read Reduce uncertainty 1/9
Nodes’ font is difficult to be read Reduce uncertainty 2/9
Small finder icon, it is hard for user to notice it Present new information with meaningful aids to interpretation 1/9
Unintuitive information Questions are not easy for laypeople to understand Present new information with meaningful aids to interpretation 1/9
Unnecessary information Preferred names and scientific names are unnecessary nodes Fuse data 1/9
Redundant information for some questions’ results Include in the displays only that information needed by the user at a given time 2/9
Show too much information without limitation Include in the displays only that information needed by the user at a given time 3/9
Unnecessary information (Number in the parentheses) in right column Include in the displays only that information needed by the user at a given time 1/9
Unnecessary information (UMLS Semantic Type) in right column Include in the displays only that information needed by the user at a given time 1/9