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Table 9 Comparison of our MLM results with the literature review results. Bold values show the best obtained F-scores

From: Combination of conditional random field with a rule based method in the extraction of PICO elements

  P I O
Number of sentences in training (%) 662 (6.8) 565 (5.9) 3565 (36.6)
Our MLM stage - blind test corpus
 F-score 73% 43% 90%
The best F-scores in ALTA shared task [12]
 System 1 58% 34% 89%
 System 2 51% 35% 86%
The best F-scores in paper [11]
 CRF 81% 81% 98%
 SVM 31% 21% 90%
 Nave Bayes 34% 10% 86%
 Multinomial Logistic Regression 41% 28% 90%
Other papers F-score results using the same training and test corpora
 Kim et al. [14] 48% 16% 83%
 Verbek et al. [30] 29% 21% 85%
 Sarker et al. [31] 52% 34% 86%